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Friday, May 27, 2011

India

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If you take a look at my front page I have placed the Indian flag. The Indian flag was founded in 147. And as you can see it has three horizontal lines, which are all of the same width. One saffron yellow line one white and one green. In the middle is emperor Ashoka’s wheel in blue.


Ashoka spread a message of love and peace trough out the whole southern Asia. In 61 BC the Kalinga war started. Where Ashoka lost 100 000 men and even more got lethally hurt. This became a turning point in Ashokas life and for the rest of his life. He gave up war and sought peace in Buddhas preaching’s of love and non-violence. The war also developed in him a hatred for all kinds of violence. So he gave up hunting and slaughtering of animals. He became a strict vegetarian. The top of Ashoka pillar at Sarnath is adopted by India as its national emblem. The reason for me bringing up Ashoka, and this history is because I wanted to say that India is a peaceful country. That is the reason for them to have Ashoka’s wheel in their flag and for their national emblem to be from Ashoka’s pillar; representing peace.


India’s currency are Indian rupee (currency code INR) 100 Norwegian krone (NOK) would be 60 INR. India got the second biggest population in the world; the only country with more people is china. And with numbers from


“CIA - the world fact” book they show that in July 00 there were 1,045,845,6 people living in India. And then you have China in the lead with 1,84,0,705 and that are much more people then what a person from Norway with its 4,5 million people can imagine! The country got borders in to Pakistan, China, Nepal, Bangladesh, and Burma. And at their southern coast they also have Sri Lanka. The main religion in India is Hindu, which are the belief of 81% of their whole populous. But there also are other religions like Islam; there are 1% Muslim people in India. And then there are the Christians but there only is .%. You also got the people that are Sikh, I will bring them up later but they exist in 1.% of India’s population. And are centred in the north west of India. The rest of their people (.5%) are mostly followers of Buddhist, Jain, Parsi and a few minor groups. The country is split up in to 8 states and 7 territories. Their capital is New Delhi. India is a republic, with an election every five years. Their president is Abdul Khalam. Khalam were elected July 6 00.


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On the picture above u can see the Indian parliament. It is placed in New Deli and was built by the English in the 10’s. The constitution of India came in to force January 150. And then in 151 �5 there were held the first general election under the new constitution. And finally in April 15 the first Indian parliament got elected. The elected people of the parliament; the government are called Lok shaba. Lok shaba consist of 545 people. The number is divided among the different States and Union. To be in the house of parliament you have to be over 5 years old. And the representatives in the parliament are elected like the president every fifth year! So as you can probably understand India is a huge country. In land mass it is the seventh biggest country in the world. India is not only a huge country with a big population but India also qualifies as one of the tenth biggest industrial nation in the world! And their dominating industry is agriculture. India is the largest producer of tea in the world one the picture below u can see women pick tea leaves from trees.





In 18 the country produced 810,000 tonnes of tea.


One-third of Indias tea production is destined for export. This tea plantation is located in Tezpur in the state of Assam. The unemployment rate in India is 4.4% with numbers from 001. In Norway at the same time we had .6% people that were with out a job. India’s total labour forces consist of 406 million people. Most of those work with agriculture (agriculture 60%, services %, industry 17%). India also got an enormous export of textiles and clothing on the picture to the left u can see a woman that is folding a length of dyed cotton.


Bollywood is the world’s biggest movie producer. This is something that most people don’t know. Most people look at Hollywood in the United States as the leading movie producer. Despite the fact that, Bollywood is the leading movie producer in the world their movies are kind of low budget ones compared to the movies made in Hollywood. Bollywood are located in Bombay, and it is on the west cost of India.


Indian people also know Bombay as Mumbai. It is the leading financial centre of India and a major commercial, transport, and manufacturing centre for the country. Mumbai Harbour is one of the world’s greatest natural harbours. The port receives a large part of the nation’s total imports and is a shipping-point for goods produced in western India. The city is one of the most important centres in India for the production of cotton textiles. Other leading industries include printing and publishing, shipbuilding and repairing, and the manufacture of chemicals, machinery, and metal products.


On in the bottom of the previous page there is a picture of the city. Those high-rise buildings are some of the biggest commercial complexes in Mumbai. Here is a map of Mumbai. As u can see it is well suited for a harbour city.


And there is much more to Bombay then this! When the British came their first stop where Bombay. And Bombay has expanded a lot sense then… and even today they got a huge influx of people. It is one of the wealthiest cities in India because of their industries. It is also important to say that India also is one of the leading countries in the world with educating computer engineers. Many of their students are headhunted long before they are done at college usually huge computer firms in countries like United States.


And if u didn’t know India also got one of the world’s biggest military machines. Their army is huge, always growing because of their “cold war” against Pakistan! Many people think that is just a matter of time before a major clash between the two countries bring them in to a nuclear war. But u got to remember that India is a country of peace. They got to have their nukes because Pakistan got nukes. And as long as they got a bigger military then Pakistan there is no actual threat that Pakistan will attack them. But on the other hand India already got a twice as big military then what Pakistan have so if there would be war with the two countries Pakistan would maybe go to desperate measures and use nukes. But then again that would only lead to that the two countries would wipe each other out. And well there have been a tense relationship with the two countries for so many years now that I don’t thing there ever will be a war. If it happens India be the one to throw the first stone that’s for sure!


India’s school systems are strongly affected by the time under British rule. The education where changed to the way it where in Britain. And still today the education is in English. Many have tried to change this so that the system can adapt to the students instead of the other way around. But something like that requires both time and resources. And the schools are worst out on the country far away from the big cities. The thing is that most of their population lives just on the country. With numbers from 5- it shows that out of people over 15 years 51% can read and write. That will say that almost half the population can’t read and write. That is a lot but there are moving in a positive way because in 85, out of people over 15 years old only 4% could read and write.


But India has been working around the clock trying to minimize their huge size of people that couldn’t read and write. And today almost everyone starts at school when they are 6 years old. And there also are programs designated to teach their people above 15 years to read and write.





By the Indian constitution Hindi would replace English before 165. But it stopped there it wasn’t possible to perform. English is still the language for national, political, and commercial communication. So the people in India use English as a formal tongue. All young people in India speak English. The only ones that don’t are persons that either are really old or don’t want to learn it. And youth’s use a combination of Hindi and English when talking to each other. But Hindu is the national language and primary tongue of 0% of the people but there also are 14 other official languages Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Malayalam, Urdu, Gujarati, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official language. As I where saying; India have tried to replace Hindi as a their official language but. This idea met some big difficulties because as I were saying. There are to many languages in India. And all these 14 languages are mostly known as state languages. But then again u have inside every state loads off different languages, that aren’t official. So in my opinion they will never manage to replace English totally! Just in addition to what I said. This is something that have lead to many clashes between those who want to keep English and those who want English replaced, and specially in the south of India. On the picture to the right u can see the hand writing Bengali!


The first to arrive in India was the Portuguese. They established a colony in Goa already in the early 16th century. But the rest of the great seafarers soon sailed there too. What attracted the Portuguese was the spice Malabar. The Portuguese made their presents unnoticed compared to when the English came. The English got political supremacy after the battle of Plassey in 1757. And from that they gradually extended their realm. And soon they had control over the whole sub continent. India rapidly grew to become the jewel in the British crown. Because all their natural resources, which was something that helped the British in their industrial revulsion. India was under the British rule until 147. But already 0 years before that there were made an attempt to retrieve independence from the British! In 1857 The First War of Independence! Which brutally ended. But even in its failure this was something that created many heroes and heroines. And lead to a unity between the Hindus and the Muslims of India. This is something that is to be witnessed in the later years. Because 0 years later Ghandi made his presents felt but we will get to him in a little while, be patient. The British Empire contained within itself the seeds of its own destruction. The British constructed a vast railway network across the entire land. This made the transport of raw materials to the export ports easy. But this also made it easy for the unity we talked about (Hindu’s and the Muslims) to be in easy reach of each other. It was of course impossible for a small handful of foreigners to administer such an enormous country; they set out to create a local elite to help them in this task. To this they created a system that gave the local resistance education and familiarized them with the social values of the west. Things such as democracy, individual freedom and this were things that were the antithesis to the empire. And then Ghandi came marching along, but Mohandas K. Gandhi weren’t any emperor neither any military


General neither were he a president. Who was Gandhi?


Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was a British trained lawyer he studied law at university college, London. When Gandhi was educated as a lawyer he wanted to start a law practice in Bombay but this with little success. years after this an Indian firm retrieved him as a legal adviser in South Africa. Their office was in Durban and arriving there Gandhi found himself in a country where he was a member of an inferior race. And Gandhi soon found him self in the middle of the fight for the human rights the people living in South Africa under the cruel apartheid where in lack of. Gandhi stayed in South Africa for 0 years and suffered imprisonment several times. He began teaching about passive r�sistance after getting beaten up by some white South Africans. Gandhi got partly his idea of passive resistance from the Russian writer Leo Tolstoy. And Gandhi really loved the people of India and he loved the country too.


“My life is an indivisible whole, and all my activities run into one another; and they all have their rise in my insatiable love of mankind.” (Harijan, ..14)


And the people came to love Gandhi too. They gave him the name Mahatma Gandhi that means “great soul”.


Gandhi became one of the biggest reasons for India becoming independent. And then later is his life, after returning to India. Well you can say that Gandhi united India in a way none has done before him. When we speak about Gandhi we doesn’t speak about the great people of the 1th century we speak about the greatest people in mankind. He saw it as his mission to free India and so he surtainly did. And he also said things like


“I have that implicit faith in my mission that, if it succeeds - as it will succeed, it is bound to succeed - history will record it as a movement designed to knit all people in the world together, not as hostile to one another but as parts of one whole.” (Harijan, 6.1.14)


Gandhi also made an effort for opening the eyes on his people; he meant that women’s where equal to men, and that they should be treated accordingly. But of course that aren’t what he is most known for. The way he inspired the people of India and lead them, leading to the liberation in 147 is incredible and none has ever pulled something like that off anywhere! He became a profound inspiration to other great leaders like Martin Luther King in the United States who did many great things for the coloured people of the country there until he was assassinated. Gandhi also became of great inspiration to nelson Mandela in South Africa. Gandhi’s death was a international catastrophe. His place in humanity was measured not in terms of the 0th century, but in terms of history. A period of mourning was set-aside in the united nation general assembly and India received condolences from all over the world. And a little while later religious violence grew more and more stronger to what it is today with India and Pakistan. So as I said, there hasn’t been a real war between India and Pakistan yet and they have been acting like that for over 50 years now. So arrest my case, but I don’t think there will be a war in India, at least not for as long as I live…


As I said earlier in this essay we would get to the Sikhs later. And well “later” has arrived!


And the sikhs are a people whose national home is the


state of Punjab in northern India. They began as followers of a man called GURU NANAK (146-15) who was from Lahore. He founded a new religion, rejecting a number of Hindu practises such as the caste system and idol worship.


Nanak was the 1st of 10 guru’s or religious teachers of


Sikhs, who derive their name from Sikha meaning


disciples. Teachings of gurus are written in a book called ADI GRANTH kept in the golden temple at Amritsar. This was built in 157 on a site granted by emperor Akbar. Later mogul emperors however tried to suppress the Sikhs andthe 10th guru Gobind Singh transformed the Sikhs into Khalsas Leaning Pure… a militant brotherhood pledged to overthrow Muslim rule.


Sikhs also fought the British in the fight for


independence and they continued to demand the creation of Khalistan the land of the Khalsa. Sikhs have 5 outward symbols of their religion.


The five k”’s


1 Kes uncut hair


Kachh short trousers


“Kirpan” a short dagger


4 ”Khanga” a comb


5 Kara a metal bangle.





One Sikh holy wall painting


On the fifth June 184 the Indian governments invasion and desecration of the Golden Temple in Amritsar, the holiest shrine of the Sikhs, which took place from June to June 6, 184 on the orders of the Chief Minister, Parkash Singh Badal was a part of operation blue star aimed at curbing terrorism associated with the demand of the Sikhs for creation of a separate homeland state.


There were several incidents involving people riding


motorcycles n shooting innocent people with machine guns


n the whole state of Punjab was gripped in fear.


BEFORE AFTER!


But the biggest religion is still Hinduism.


People who follow Hinduism are called Hindus; most of them live in India (81%)where


the religion began. Hinduism is a mixture of faiths. One of the oldest religions that includes beliefs of the early inhabitants of India as well as those that entered the country over 000years ss its a mixture of faiths it has many different ideas and some people follow some of its ideas n some another. To a person who didn’t know that Hinduism was this way seven Hindus would appear as following seven different religions.


The earliest sacred books for Hindus are called


VEDAS”. Collections of hymns and poems that set out as


the religious ideas of the Aryans (1500bc); which was a group of people emigrating from the Middle East. This is written in Sanskrit. These people had many different gods represented as forces of nature like fire lightening water. As time went on the Aryan took up ideas n gods from the people they conquered. So Hinduism as it is today has absorbed beliefs of numerous races n cultures.


As I where saying, many gods r worshipped in Hinduism.


Supreme over all is a divine spirit or deity called


Brahman (the absolute) Brahman is present in everything and everyplace and shows himself in different ways.


People can join Brahman in different ways


1. Dedicating themselves to their work


. By prayer and love


. And living alone n spending days in


contemplation (thinking of spiritual things)


mostly priests choose this option yoga helps them to do


this.


Hindus believe that until a person’s spirit or soul is


joined with Brahman his soul keeps on being born again and again this is called REINCARNATION.


In each life a person is rewarded or punished for what


he /she has done in a past life.


Ordinary people worship in easy ways; as Brahman shows


himself in many ways its possible for people to find him


and worship him in a variety of ways. Brahman shows certain aspects of himself through


lesser gods which people worship like


1. VISHNU is the god that preserves life and


fights evil and on such occasions, he was born on


earth once as RAMAH meaning a great king.


Another time as Krishna the shepherd.


Their stories are told in two poems the Ramayana and


the Mahabharata. These are sung on special


occasions.


.Shiva the destroyer” for he stands for all the


forces of nature representing, forces that create life


and destroys life. Statues show him as a dancing figure with 4 arms a sign of unceasing activity.


He is also portrayed as wearing a garland of skulls.


His wife PARVATI can change form, which emphasizes


her power to destroy. People who worship them believe in sacrificing animals in temples.


saraswati goddess of learning


4.Lakshmi sister of saraswati is the goddess of wealth.


5Ganesha remover of obstacles is the god with the


head of an elephant.


Hindus worship in TEMPLES offering flowers n food.


There are sometimes tiny altars along the road to give


offerings.


Worship is done with the whole family or alone and


most houses have a room or the corner in which there


is a family shrine. Hindus also believe that certain rivers are sacred. Like Ganges and have the power to wash away sins. On the banks of this river is the holy city of Varanasi where the bodies of Hindus are cremated. And


the ashes scattered on its waters.


Hindus believe in all living organisms having a soul. For this reason devout Hindus eat on vegetarian food.


Cow is a scared animal


others regarded as messengers or reincarnations


are monkeys, serpent, elephant, bull, horse, buffalo, dog, mouse and certain birds.


India also have loads of festivals and the most important once for the Hindus are


1.The coming of spring is marked by HOLI when all


social restrictions are forgotten everyone sings n


dances n squirts each other with water colours n


powder.


.Diwali festival of lights...in autumn n this is


the Hindu New Year! Oil lams are lit in every house n temple and floated on rivers to welcome Lakshmi the goddess of wealth and prosperity n fireworks explode to frighten away evil spirits.


Hinduism has an important effect on the social organisation of its followers. Every Hindu is born a Hindu and into a caste which I a particular position in society. Children have the same caste as their parents. And people are supposed to live in accordance with the rules of the caste. This division of society into castes and subcasts leads to disharmony and made it difficult for India to develop political unity through its history.Caste system is still prevalent in Rural India butmost educated Hindus do not believe in it.


As I where saying, India is a vast country with a huge wildlife, the Bengal tiger is their national animal. Researches say that there are minimum 5000 tigers left in the world… and well India holds over one sixth of the total population of tigers. But India also got elephants, apes and eagles and much more. They have everything. There is an old saying that says. If u can’t find it in India you wont find it elsewhere.





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