Sunday, December 18, 2011

Huma Cloning

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Human Cloning

A pro and con issue

I. Introduction

Take an egg from a female sheep, remove the nucleus(containing all DNA of this sheep), not take a cell from the udder of a female sheep, place that cell in a petri dish. Place the nucleus taken from the egg inside the nucleus of the udder cell, give them a jolt of electricity to begin fusion process, joined egg and cell begin to divide until they form an emerging embryo, egg is transferred to womb of another sheep…cloning is born. Cloning is the scientific process that allows for this nuclear transfer.

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II. The debate begins

A sheep named Dolly was the world’s first clone of an adult mammal., born February , 17. The birth of Dolly was made possible without the aid of a ram, a male sheep. The cloning technique used to create dolly was developed by scientist at Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland Dolly became a celebrity and Roslin institute gained recognition as a great research center for its work in medicine and genetics. But as the weeks passed, the interest in Dolly and cloning shifted to the meaning for the good of humanity, Dolly presented scientist with a series of problems . International debates began regarding human rights. The Roman catholic church was absolutely opposed to any human meddling calling this” against God”.

III. Arguments in favor of cloning

· Human cloning would allow infertile couples to have children- The cloned child would belong to the parents, with all the privileges & responsibilities of parenthood. Some people believe this is preferable to adoption. Adoption is expensive, lengthy, while cloning by nuclear transfer would not involve red tape.

· Human cloning could eliminate the risk of passing on hereditary diseases-passing hereditary disease can be avoided by substituting sperm or eggs from a healthy donor through such procedures as artificial insemination. Human cloning would give the offspring the genes of one of the parents-no one else.

· Human cloning could provide a twin from which a person could obtain an organ for transplant. Cloning would solve the body’s rejection of organ transplant

· Human cloning could enable people to replace someone who had been dear to them. = However, it would need to be explained to them that they would not be obtaining the lost child rather a new child with the same genes.

· Human cloning could make possible the duplication of people of great genius, talent, character, or other qualities. While cloning are not duplicating the original, genes are the ones that determine special characteristics…and any clone of an artist, athlete, or performer would most likely be capable of at least some achievement in the same field as the cloned individual.

· Animal cloning could help save endangered species or revive extinct species. Not like Jurassic Park because the DNA transferred must be active, and this was not the case in the prehistoric creatures featured in the film.

IV. Arguments against cloning

· Evil clone argument-cloning could be used to clone evil people

ex Hitlers, social killers-we should not allow a procedure that could

be used for evil purposes, we should therefore not allow cloning.

· But…cloning could be used for good purposes too, like cloning Mother

Theresas… it is not necessarily the case that you would produce

someone with same qualities, ex identical twins-exact genetic

similarities, but different personalities, clones at not genetically exact

copies, not raised in the same environment, they might be a nice

Hitler, or Jeffrey Domner.

· Playing God argument cloning is playing God-it does not occur naturally., It is wrong to play God, therefore it is wrong to clone

· But not everything that is unnatural is wrong to do, ex blood transfusions, artificial insemination, all medical procedures, and cosmetic surgeries-and we don’t stop doing them.

· Cloning is inhuman-clones would not have antecessors, the would have evolved in a test tube or petri dish, there would be no ties to family, they are not related to you, they would be outside the experience of belonging to a family, therefore your clone brother would be considered “less than human”

· Cloning could mean the end of sexual reproduction- If cloning were easily accomplished, there’d be no need for men. A woman could produce a clone within herself, without a man. All that would be required, besides the cloning technique, would be DNA, an egg, and a womb, either her own or another woman’s. Objections to the idea- it would take away the advantages of breeding. The mingling of genes have been the means whereby the human species has developed resistance to various germs, viruses, diseases and other enemies. Having only one set of genes, all closely related, lowers our resistance to invaders and leave us open to infection and disease.

· Human cloning could cause psychological damage to the clone.

Clones would certainly be aware of their natural predecessors and

might suppose that their life course would be the same. This could

discourage any ambition or hopes they might have., or they might

feel expected to match the accomplishments of the cloned person.

For instance, a clone of a great musician would also be expected to

be musically gifted. They would lack sense of individuality, special-

ness, or freedom to loose.

· Human cloning could be used for commercial purposes-

Like a dial-a-clone operation in which customers specify the type of

child they want.-Even though there is a band on human cloning-

underground factories could exist.

· Human cloning could be used to solve social problems- if criminal tendencies are genetic are some believe-that the genes are somehow different from law-abiding citizens, then cloning, could fix these faulty genes, removed them from the nucleus before implanting in receiver eggs. Such a scheme could be compared to brainwashing-by which those in power could control those who disagree with or oppose them.

V. Stem Cell Research

· An embryo is a group of stem cells, by extracting the stem cells from the embryo; scientist can direct their growth in a lab to become differentiated cells that could take the place of damaged of faulty cells in an organism. Diseases, physical disorders, or injuries that result in cell damage could be cured. Illnesses such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, cancer and diabetes could be cured thru stem cell research. In late November 001, our congress voted on support for stem cell research.

VI. Conclusion

Human cloning could be a part of the advance in genetic

engineering, but it could also be the temptation to unscrupulous

businesspeople as well as scientist….the debate will go on.

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