-->

Pages

Monday, February 20, 2012

Oligopoly

If you order your cheap essays from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Oligopoly. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Oligopoly paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in Oligopoly, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your Oligopoly paper at affordable prices with cheap essay writing service!



I consider how a firmfs competition may strategically react to the decisions of the firm, and changes in the marketplace. To illustrate how different types of competition affect industry profits, I will look at a market structure oligopoly which is much more difficult to evaluate than other market structure. It is important to realize that most real world industries engage in many different types of competition simultaneously. This paper will provide information to answer the questionh Why is oligopolistic collusion more difficult when there is product variation than when the products of all firms are identical?h


About Oligopoly


Oligopoly is defined as an industry in which there are a few firms. By a few it is meant that the number of firms should be sufficiently small for there to be conscious interdependence, with each firm aware that its future prospects, depend not only on its own policies, but also those of its rivals. An industry is defined as a group of firms where the firms products are close substitutes for one another, that is have a high and positive cross elasticity of demand


There are three-models in oligopoly such as collusion, price leadership, and Kinked demand curve. In this paper, I will focus on the collusion model (the cartel model), and then explain the collusion model.


Cheap Custom Essays on Oligopoly




Collusion and Cartels


When an oligopoly is non-collusive the firm uses guesswork and calculation to handle the uncertainty of its rivals reactions. However another way of handling uncertainty in markets which are interdependent is by some form of central co-ordination. One form of collusion is to form a cartel. A cartel is the establishment of some central body with responsibility for setting the industry price and output. Collusion is illegal in the U.S. but cartels such as oil producers are active in other parts of the world. However, in the U.S. many firms have been investigated for collusive behavior. An estimated percent of firms in the U.S. have admitted to or have been convicted of illegal price fixing. When firms engage in collusion they may agree on prices, market share, and advertising expenditure. The cartel will maximize profits if it behaves as a monopoly. Having agreed on the cartel price the members may then compete against each other using non-price competition to gain a bigger share of output or they may somehow decide to share the market between them


Equilibrium in an Oligopolistic Market


In any market, firms are in equilibrium when they are doing the best they can and have no reason to change their price or output. Since firms in an oligopoly market have the knowledge of their competitors, oligopoly firms are in equilibrium when they do their bests given what their competitors are doing.


Since it is true for any firm, the competitors also will do their best given the actions of said firm.


Differentiated and Homogeneous product


There are two types of oligopoly, impure oligopoly that has a differentiated product, and pure oligopoly that has a homogeneous product. Homogenous product means that product the company is producing is identical with any other same product that different company is producing. These products are usually not as many as differential products for example gasoline, steel, gold, wheat, and so on. There are all homogenous products because there are very few differences among them. While homogenous products are almost identical, differential products are all the other products any company is producing and even when products are similar in many ways there still can be lots of differences between each product. Differentiated products make the firmsf coordination problem more complex. An increase in the product differentiation leads to a decrease in the correlation of the demand functions for goods. In an environment where a firm cannot observe its competitorsf action, but they have to infer from observable signals whether another firm has deviated. This makes oligoplistic collusion more difficult to sustain. Product differentiation limits the scope of oligoplistic collusion or the cartel model. Because with a lower correlation, discrimination between cheating and exogenous fluctuations in demand is more difficult. Therefore, there is the effect of a deviation on the probability of a price war. That can weaken the stability of the oligoplistic collusion. In the traditional view, product variation impedes cartel behavior because firms meet a situation of high complexity. For instance, firms merely have to agree on one price when the products of all firms are identical, but firms have to negotiate the prices when the products of all firms are different. Furthermore, firms may have difficulty in monitoring the policies of their competitorsf in complex situations.


Conclusion


Under these circumstances, both the benefit of collusion and the gain of deviating from a cartel strategy are likely to be smaller for differentiated goods than for homogeneous goods. They show that product heterogeneity is a factor hindering collusion among oligoplists, because it entails a situation of higher gcomplexityh than prevails with homogeneous goods. That explains why oligoplistic collision is more difficult when there is product variation than when the products of all firms are identical.


References


Tucker, I. B. (000), Market structures; Monopolistic competition and oligopoly, Economic for Today. South-Western College Publishing.


http//www.missouri.edu/~auras/51files/lectures-4.pdf


Retrieved February 1, 00


http//people.moreheadstate.edu/fs/m.phillips/micronoteschap111.pdf


Retrieved February 1, 00


http//www.genconnection.com/econ/chapter10-11.htm.


Retrieved February 1, 00





Please note that this sample paper on Oligopoly is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Oligopoly, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom research papers on Oligopoly will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from cheap essay writing service and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



diaz

If you order your cheap essays from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on diaz. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality diaz paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in diaz, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your diaz paper at affordable prices with cheap essay writing service!



The fifth region, the Appalachian Mountains, runs along the eastern part of North America. It’s the great mountain system of eastern North America, nearly parallel with the Atlantic coast, and extending from the province of Qu�bec in Canada to northern Alabama. The system is ,400 km (1,500 mi) long and varies from 160 to more than 480 km (100 to more than 00 mi) in width. Its altitude varies between 460 and nearly ,040 m (1,500 and nearly 6,700 ft). The Appalachian Mountains have different names in different places such as the Green Mountains, Alleghenies, Blue Ridge and Great Smokies. The Appalachian Mountains are heavily forested and contain deposits of iron ore, anthracite, bituminous coal, zinc, slate, limestone, asbestos, mica, granite, and emery. Along the western slope from southwestern New York through western Pennsylvania, into West Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee, lay coalfields. The highest Appalachian peak is Mt. Mitchell in North Carolina, which is 6,684 feet high. Numerous rivers make their way through the Appalachians. Among the more important are the Connecticut, Hudson, Delaware, Schuylkill, Susquehanna, Potomac, James, and Rappahannock Still, early European settlers had a hard time crossing these heavily forested mountains.


The Appalachian Mountains enter states such as Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York, Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina and South, Tennessee, Georgia and Alabama.


The sixth region is the Canadian Shield. It was formed as part of the earth’s crust some billion years ago, and the hard, crystalline rocks of the shield are among the oldest in the world. It’s a lowland area. Most of it lies in eastern Canada. It covers central and eastern Canada and small parts of the northern United States. The shield extends in a great semicircle around Hudson Bay, reaching from the Arctic coast north of Great Bear Lake in the Northwest Territories to northern Qu�bec and Labrador. The southern part extends into the United States. The region was once an area of high mountains. The mountains were worn away to low hills and plains.


The shield also extends into the northern areas of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, and New York in the United States.


Cheap custom writing service can write essays on diaz




The seventh region is a lowland area called the Coastal Plains. Part of this region lies between the Atlantic Ocean and the foothills of the Appalachian. It was under water and is now almost flat. The Atlantic Plain is narrow in the North where Boston and New York City are located. It broadens in the South to include all of Florida. Another part of the coastal plain is the Gulf Plain in which it lies along the Gulf of Mexico. The Great Plain has large deposits of petroleum and New Orleans and Houston are major cities of the Gulf Plain.


The states that in the coastal plains are from Maine all the way down the eastern coast states and also Texas then Arkansas and then Louisiana and Mississippi and Alabama.


Between the Rockies in the West and the Appalachians in the east is a large lowland area called the Interior Plains. The western part is called the Great Plains and the eastern is called the Central Plains .The Interior Plains are flat to gently rolling plains, bordered on the west by the Cordillera and on the east by the Canadian Shield. The Interior Plains extend from the territory’s southern border to the Arctic Ocean. The plains were formed more than 500 million years ago when sediments were deposited on an ancient sea bottom. Over time, these sediments were transformed into layers of sedimentary rock. Today, some parts are rich in coal and petroleum, others have fertile soil.


In the Interior Plains are the states of Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, North and South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Wisconsin, Illinois, Missouri, Arkansas, Michigan, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, Ohio, Pennsylvania and New York


Between the Rockies in the West and the Appalachians in the east is a large lowland area called the Interior Plains. The western part is called the Great Plains and the eastern is called the Central Plains .The Interior Plains are flat to gently rolling plains, bordered on the west by the Cordillera and on the east by the Canadian Shield. The Interior Plains extend from the territory’s southern border to the Arctic Ocean. The plains were formed more than 500 million years ago when sediments were deposited on an ancient sea bottom. Over time, these sediments were transformed into layers of sedimentary rock. Today, some parts are rich in coal and petroleum, others have fertile soil.


In the Interior Plains are the states of Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, North and South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Wisconsin, Illinois, Missouri, Arkansas, Michigan, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, Ohio, Pennsylvania and New York





Please note that this sample paper on diaz is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on diaz, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom research papers on diaz will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from cheap essay writing service and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Wednesday, February 15, 2012

english

If you order your cheap essays from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on english. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality english paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in english, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your english paper at affordable prices with cheap essay writing service!



ORAL LANGUAGE {ENG11.1}{ENG11.} Make informative and persuasive presentations. Use the speaking process as a strategy for learning. Refine speaking skills in informal situations (cooperative learning and class discussion). Formulate and express ideas and questions with fluency. Refine public speaking skills appropriate to more sophisticated topics and adult audiences. Present evidence clearly and convincingly. Prepare special speeches such as eulogy, TV and radio speeches, speeches with audio-visual aids. Analyze topic, purpose, occasion, and audience during presentation planning. Use appropriate verbal and nonverbal communication. Identify language appropriate to purpose, situation, and audience to plan for a presentation. Select appropriate format, organizational pattern, and technique for delivery to plan for a presentation. Critique the accuracy, relevance, organization of evidence, and the clarity and effectiveness of delivery. Demonstrate two-way listener-speaker responsibilities. Demonstrate listener attitude, knowledge of wait time, and receptive body language. Distinguish between appropriate and inappropriate feedback. Identify roles and relationships between communicators and respond. Use grammatically correct language including vocabulary appropriate to the topic, audience, and purpose. READING ANALYSIS {ENG11.} {ENG11.4} Refine pre-reading strategies such as preview text, set purpose, recall and relate prior knowledge and personal experience, and predict. Refine during-reading strategies such as generate and answer questions, confirm, refute, modify predictions, make inferences, use context clues, visualize, read ahead, adjust reading rate depending on material and reading purpose, identify language structure and story structure, and use punctuation and capitalization as visual cues. Refine post-reading strategies summarize, draw conclusions, determine authors purpose, determine applications, share information learned, evaluate/synthesize, and evaluate progress. Analyze the format and content of a variety of informational materials. Use information from texts to clarify or refine understanding of academic concepts. Extend general and specialized vocabularies for reading and writing. Generalize ideas from selections to make predictions about other texts. Expand vocabulary by assimilating grade level vocabulary; identifying words in context, and decoding words using prefixes, suffixes, and roots from Greek and Latin origins; recognizing connotation and denotation of vocabulary; expanding vocabulary in writing and speaking, using connotation and denotation in writing; identify word relationships in tests like the SOLs and SATs; and creating analogies. Discuss American literature as it reflects contemporary and traditional themes, motifs, universal characters, and genres. Describe cultural archetypes in short stories, novels, poems, and plays. Analyze literary allusions. Analyze literature as a primary source of information from the society in which it was written. Analyze literature in regard to the literary movement in which it was written (for example Colonialism). Compare and contrast the development of American literature in its historical context. Describe how use of context and language structures conveys an author’s intent and viewpoint in contemporary and historical essays, speeches, and critical reviews. Develop and use sustained silent reading to increase vocabulary, develop fluency, expand knowledge, and develop a variety of interests. Develop independent reading through trade books. WRITING {ENG11.7}{ENG11.8}{ENG11.} Develop a variety of writings with an emphasis on persuasion. Refine pre-writing strategies generate ideas by brainstorming, mapping or webbing, observing, questioning, listening, reading Gather and organize information by responding, visualizing, thinking, recalling, discussing, drawing, clustering, researching, note taking, free writing, interviewing, outlining. Prepare document for intended audience or purpose by adapting content, vocabulary, voice, and tone; rereading; conferencing, revising, proofreading and editing, sharing, rewriting. Refine post-writing strategies prepare document for publication or some other use by illustrating, displaying, printing, and sharing. Use the domains of writing as an aid in evaluation. Refine the use of precise language -apply knowledge of eight parts of speech to revise for standard grammar and mechanics and usage -use a variety of sentence structures -revise writing for clearly stated and elaborated focus. Develop a writing style by experimenting with models. Refine and critique use of precise language in tone, audience, topic selections, and purpose. Use technology to access, develop, and modify documents. Edit writing for correct use of language, sentence formation, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling. RESEARCH {ENG11.} Analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and organize information from a variety of sources to produce a research product. Develop a plan for research. Select and narrow a topic. Develop a primary thesis. Examine library and electronic sources -Use multiple media sources -Use available technology -Use data bases to access information.


Please note that this sample paper on english is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on english, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom research papers on english will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from cheap essay writing service and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Sunday, February 12, 2012

As the novel opens, Winston feels frustrated by the oppression and rigid control of the Party, which prohibits free thought, sex, and any expression of individuality. Winston dislikes the party and has illegally purchased a diary in which to write his cri

If you order your cheap essays from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on As the novel opens, Winston feels frustrated by the oppression and rigid control of the Party, which prohibits free thought, sex, and any expression of individuality. Winston dislikes the party and has illegally purchased a diary in which to write his cri. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality As the novel opens, Winston feels frustrated by the oppression and rigid control of the Party, which prohibits free thought, sex, and any expression of individuality. Winston dislikes the party and has illegally purchased a diary in which to write his cri paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in As the novel opens, Winston feels frustrated by the oppression and rigid control of the Party, which prohibits free thought, sex, and any expression of individuality. Winston dislikes the party and has illegally purchased a diary in which to write his cri, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your As the novel opens, Winston feels frustrated by the oppression and rigid control of the Party, which prohibits free thought, sex, and any expression of individuality. Winston dislikes the party and has illegally purchased a diary in which to write his cri paper at affordable prices with cheap essay writing service!



After a ninety-hour workweek, Winston is exhausted. In the middle of Hate Week, Oceania has switched enemies and allies in the ongoing war, heaping upon Winston a tremendous amount of work to compensate for the change. At one rally, the speaker is forced to change his speech halfway through to point out that Oceania is not, and has never been, at war with Eurasia. Rather, the speaker says, Oceania is, and always has been, at war with Eastasia. The people become embarrassed about carrying the anti-Eurasia signs and blame Emmanuel Goldsteins agents for sabotaging them. Nevertheless, they exhibit full-fledged hatred for Eastasia.


In the room at Mr. Charringtons, Winston reads through Goldsteins The Theory and Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism, given to him by OBrien. This lengthy book, with chapter titles taken from party slogans such as WAR IS PEACE and IGNORANCE IS STRENGTH, traces a theory of social classes throughout recent history High Class, Middle Class, and Low Class�the Inner Party, the Outer Party, and the Proles. According to the manifesto, Eurasia was created when Russia subsumed all of Europe, Oceania was created when the United States absorbed the British Empire, and Eastasia is made up of the remaining nations. These three nations keep their respective populaces preoccupied with a perpetual border war in order to preserve power among the High class. Goldstein writes that the war never advances significantly, as no two allied nations can defeat the third. The war is simply a fact of life that enables the ruling powers to keep the masses ignorant of life in other places�the real meaning of the phrase WAR IS PEACE.


As Winston reads, Julia enters the room and flings herself into his arms. She is casually glad to know that he has the book. After half an hour in bed together, during which they hear the red-armed woman singing outside, Winston reads to Julia from the book. Goldstein explains that the control of history is a central tool of the Party. He adds that doublethink allows Inner Party members to be the most zealous about pursuing the war mentality, even though they know the falsity of the histories they write. Winston finally asks Julia if she is awake�she is not�and falls asleep himself. His last thought is that sanity is not statistical.


Chapter X


Do my essay on As the novel opens, Winston feels frustrated by the oppression and rigid control of the Party, which prohibits free thought, sex, and any expression of individuality. Winston dislikes the party and has illegally purchased a diary in which to write his cri CHEAP !




While Winston lies in bed the next morning, the red-armed woman outside begins to sing, waking Julia. Winston looks at the woman through the window, admires her fertility, and imagines that the proles will one day give rise to a race of conscious, independent individuals who will throw off the yoke of Party control. Winston and Julia look at the woman and realize that although they are doomed, she might hold the key to the future. Both Winston and Julia say, We are the dead, and out of the shadows a third voice interjects, You are the dead. Suddenly, the two realize that a telescreen is hidden behind the picture of St. Clements Church. Stomping boots echo from outside; the house is surrounded. A familiar voice speaks the last lines of the St. Clements rhyme Here comes a candle to light you to bed / Here comes a chopper to chop off your head! The window shatters, and black-clad troops pour in. They smash the paperweight, and Winston thinks about its smallness. The troops kick Winston and beat Julia. Winston becomes disoriented; he cannot tell the time on the old-fashioned clock in the room. As the troops restrain Winston, Mr. Charrington enters the room and orders someone to pick up the shards from the shattered paperweight. Winston realizes that Mr. Charringtons voice was the one coming from the telescreen, and that Mr. Charrington is a member of the Thought Police.


Analysis


The long, drawn-out excerpt from Emmanuel Goldsteins The Theory and Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism dominates Chapter IX, the novels longest chapter. This sprawling treatise on political economy and class struggle mixes many sources of twentieth-century political theory, including works by Leon Trotsky and Karl Marx. Orwell combines aspects of these figures respective political philosophies into an extended statement that some critics have felt is too long and too unwieldy to work effectively in the novel. Since 184 is ultimately a political novel, however, some degree of political discourse seems inevitable. While Orwell may not mask this discourse very subtly or integrate it seamlessly into the rest of the novel, it suits the novels purpose. Like titling the work 184, basing the Partys political philosophy on elements of contemporary political theory charges the issues of totalitarianism with striking relevance and immediacy.


Additionally, this discourse provides a long lull in the dramatic tension of the novel, setting up the surprising turn of events that the arrival of the Thought Police constitutes. The weighty political discussion coaxes the reader into a state of relaxation mirroring Winstons growing confidence in his ability to overcome the Party. Even though Winston has continually predicted his own capture throughout the novel, Orwell manages to time the arrival of the authorities perfectly to catch the reader off-guard.


The contrast between Winston and Julia is at its strongest as Winston reads to her from the manifesto in Chapter IX. Their reactions to the content succinctly reflect their personalities. While Winston finds the book to be a thrilling, joyful discovery and can hardly wait to devour it, Julia remains relatively uninterested, even falling asleep while Winston reads. Winston continues to seek an overall explanation of the Partys control over the present and the past. Julia, on the other hand, continues to seek personal pleasure in the present, not concerning herself with the larger and more abstract questions about her existence.





Please note that this sample paper on As the novel opens, Winston feels frustrated by the oppression and rigid control of the Party, which prohibits free thought, sex, and any expression of individuality. Winston dislikes the party and has illegally purchased a diary in which to write his cri is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on As the novel opens, Winston feels frustrated by the oppression and rigid control of the Party, which prohibits free thought, sex, and any expression of individuality. Winston dislikes the party and has illegally purchased a diary in which to write his cri, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom research papers on As the novel opens, Winston feels frustrated by the oppression and rigid control of the Party, which prohibits free thought, sex, and any expression of individuality. Winston dislikes the party and has illegally purchased a diary in which to write his cri will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from cheap essay writing service and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Friday, February 10, 2012

My traitor's heart

If you order your cheap essays from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on My traitor's heart. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality My traitor's heart paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in My traitor's heart, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your My traitor's heart paper at affordable prices with cheap essay writing service!



On the Honor’s Essay description, it says that your past students couldn’t imagine what it would be like to read Kaffir Boy without reading My Traitor’s Heart, and I have to say that agree with them. Kaffir Boy and My Traitor’s Heart and two very different books that have different styles of writing and different stories, but are still about the same subjects. Kaffir Boy is written as a kind of autobiography…it follows the story of one and his quest to get out of Apartheid South Africa. My Traitor’s Heart is written differently. It centers around Rian Malan’s life as he comes back to South Africa from living in America. He came back to “face his fears”, you could say. He goes around as a reporter and experiences many things, hears many stories, and writes them all down. So, as you can see, they are two very different books.


When I first started to re-examine Kaffir Boy for this essay, I found it hard to get back into the mindset of a black South African coming from the whole story being viewed from the perspective of a wealthy, middle class white man. As I started to skim it to refresh my memory…I was almost shocked at how a different it is from My Traitor’s Heart. I personally think that Kaffir Boy is a much better book, in both content and the style of writing. Even though it was and is important to see both sides of the story, I think that the story told in Kaffir Boy is a much more important and interesting story. I had no clue about what hardships blacks went though while living in Apartheid South Africa. Before I read this book I didn’t even know what Apartheid was. The story told both tears the heart and makes you think. As you go through the book…the real face of apartheid starts becoming clearer and clearer …and as it does you get pulled in by the characters and actions…you actually FEEL the hunger, the abuse, the determination. It’s a very powerful book. This book is easily my favorite of the two.


As I re-read this, and I’m already thinking about the next section which is about My Traitor’s Heart, it finally occurred to me that these books are about two very different sides of the apartheid system. Each side saw it as something different. The “blacks” saw it as an evil method to keep them down, and the “whites” saw it simply as something to tame the blacks…because if they were allowed to live in the white’s world…things would be chaotic. It wouldn’t work. Apartheid is for their own good. And I came to the realization about why I like Kaffir Boy so much more than My Traitor’s Heart…it’s a better story. Its much more dramatic. I think that the true apartheid doesn’t lie in the white’s definition nor the blacks….but somewhere in the middle. I’m not saying that bad things didn’t happen to blacks…no, I’m just saying that…I don’t know what I’m saying.


My Traitor’s Heart is a very different book than what Kaffir Boy is. For one, it shows the White’s side of the story… it is also a much broader study on apartheid…integrating both white and black perspectives (but mostly, in the beginning of the book, focusing on the white’s perspective). Unlike Kaffir Boy, this book does not center around just one story…it’s more like an anthology of stories the author picked up while being a reporter. These stories are intertwined within one big story…that of the reporter. That may sound contradictory, but its really not. Anyways, as we go on through the book, we see the anti-apartheid movement grow and grow, until it bursts. Where as Kaffir Boy deals with the time period during and pre-protests, My Traitor’s Heart deals with the time period also during and pre-protests, but also after the protests and the effects of them. The effects of them being mostly a government that doesn’t have any power anymore…the blacks are free, but things are still not solved. I suppose the biggest thing this book teaches it’s readers is there is never a simple answer to a complicated problem. Also that violence is not all that is needed to change things…sometimes its not even needed at all.





My feelings on apartheid are pretty simple. I think that the original idea was different than what actually happened. I do not think that the creators of this now evil device meant for it to do so much damage…they just wanted to keep things at a safe level…to keep things under control. Of course that didn’t happen…so now I must judge the end result. Apartheid was a horrible, devastating device that shouldn’t of happen and shouldn’t happen again. I like to think of it as a very advanced case of racism. Of course it was treatable…but not without a cost. So many people lost their lives, their cultures, and their dignity. We cannot give them back those things. But, what we can do, is make sure it never happens again, and that we start to create a world full of understanding and unity. That’s the key to surviving, I think understanding and unity. Now, this isn’t limited to South Africa…this goes for the entire world. Until we reach a point where everyone can tolerate everyone else, where there is no hate and lots of love…we are doomed.





Please note that this sample paper on My traitor's heart is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on My traitor's heart, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom research papers on My traitor's heart will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from cheap essay writing service and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Sunday, February 5, 2012

Social influences on our children

If you order your cheap essays from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Social influences on our children. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Social influences on our children paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in Social influences on our children, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your Social influences on our children paper at affordable prices with cheap essay writing service!



In today’s society we, as parents, tend to depend on other influences to raise our children. These influences include video games, schoolmates, and the person we choose to watch our children after school. Our children are being raised to believe that there are no consequences for their actions and that boundaries do not exist in today’s society. Regardless of how much guidance we give our youth, society can be influential. Parental inattention, technological advances and the influence of peers are three key elements that are causing today’s children to have no direction, purpose or motivation.


The first and most important of these, parental inattention, is the responsibility of parents to be there for their children. Society plays a big roll in this, because most of the time both parents are required to work. This deprives our children of much needed family time. Many of today’s families consist of single parent homes or homes where grandparents have become part of the family unit. With our current economic situation this may not be financially adequate. While parents are working, who is left to raise and influence our children? What messages are we sending to our children by not being there for them? How do we coordinate getting our children involved in community sports, if we are always working? There are so many wonderful events our children are not involved in, because most families require two or more incomes just to survive.


Technology has come a long way in recent years and has become an integral part of our children’s lives. With such distractions as television and video games, it is no wonder that children of today are less social and more isolated. Television and video games get more one on one time with our children than we do. Parents should limit the time their children spend watching television and playing video games. However, many parents find themselves too busy to supervise these activities. Between work and household responsibilities, family time is limited. The influence that television and video games have on our children is more than we are willing to admit. Technological advances are not necessarily bad, but as parents, we must monitor what we allow our children to watch and play. There are many inappropriate programs on television. On every channel you can find profanity or inappropriate behavior. We should not trust ratings. Even the most popular video games tend to contain the most violence. So without properly monitoring, our children will be exposed to too much violence and bad language.


We invest a great deal of time and energy trying to teach proper beliefs and values to our children. However, when children begin school, other classmates may exhibit unbecoming behaviors and beliefs. Some children are already using profanity by the first grade. This is being learned from the previously mentioned sources, due to lack of good monitoring. Furthermore, schools are not doing enough to monitor social interactions between children. As children get older they do their best to fit in. They see theirs peers involved in drugs, alcohol, and even premarital sex. This may result in children feeling as though they need to be involved in these activities to be accepted.





Parents must make their children their priority and continue to teach them the difference between right and wrong. They should pay attention to them and who they spend time with. They should always ask questions and be observant in every aspect of their life. They need to get them involved in activities that interest them to occupy their time. They need to praise them when they do right and punish them when they do wrong. Finally we need to pray for their success in life and lead by example.





Please note that this sample paper on Social influences on our children is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Social influences on our children, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom research papers on Social influences on our children will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from cheap essay writing service and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Saturday, February 4, 2012

History of America

If you order your cheap essays from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on History of America. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality History of America paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in History of America, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your History of America paper at affordable prices with cheap essay writing service!



1) Gentleman Johnny Burgoyne British general and playwright. In the American Revolution he captured Fort Ticonderoga but lost the Battle of Saratoga. The Heiress was his most popular play.


) Charles Cornwallis British military and political leader who commanded forces in North Carolina during the American Revolution. His surrender at Yorktown in 1781 marked the final British defeat.


) Bernardo de Galvez Spain governor of Louisiana and joined the France.


4) Marquis de Lafayette French soldier and politician who served on George Washingtons staff in the American Revolution.





5) George Rogers Clark American military leader and frontiersman who led numerous raids on British troops and Native Americans in the Northwest Territory during the Revolutionary War.


6) Francis Marion American Revolutionary soldier known for his guerrilla tactics against the British in South Carolina.


- Key Terms


1) Common Sense Pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that stirred up public support for the American Revolution and called for the end of British rule in the colonies.


) Declaration of Independence Statement of the Second Continental Congress that officially declared the new United States of America to be independent of Great Britain.


) Loyalists Tories; colonists who sided with Britain in the American Revolution.


- Key People


1) Patrick Henry American Revolutionary leader and orator. A member of the House of Burgesses and the Continental Congress, he spurred the creation of the Virginia militia with his words ¡°Give me liberty, or give me death¡±. He also served as governor of Virginia.


) Thomas Paine British-born American writer and Revolutionary leader who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense arguing for American independence from Britain. In England he published The Rights of Man, a defense of the French Revolution.


) Richard Henry Lee American Revolutionary leader who proposed the resolution calling for the independence of the American colonies from England.


4) Thomas Jefferson The third President of the United States. A member of the second Continental Congress, he drafted the Declaration of Independence.


5) Abigail Adams First Lady of the United States as the wife of President John Adams. Her letters to her husband provide a vivid picture of life in colonial Massachusetts.


6) Thayendanegea Mohawk leader who supported the British in the French and Indian War and the American Revolution.


Section 4. An American Victory


- Key Terms


1) Battle of Trenton Revolutionary War Battle in New Jersey in which Patriot forces captured more than 00 Hessian troops fighting for Britain.


) Battle of Saratoga Turning point of the Revolutionary War; Patriot victory led to more support from European powers.


) guerrilla warfare Type of fighting in which soldiers use swift hit-and-run attacks to wear down the enemy.


4) Battle of Yorktown Last major battle of the Revolutionary War; site of British general Charles Cornwalliss surrender to the Patriots in Virginia.


5) Treaty of Paris Peace agreement that officially ended the Revolutionary War and established Britains formal recognition of the United States.





Please note that this sample paper on History of America is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on History of America, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom research papers on History of America will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from cheap essay writing service and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Friday, February 3, 2012

The Gold Rush

If you order your cheap essays from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on The Gold Rush. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality The Gold Rush paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in The Gold Rush, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your The Gold Rush paper at affordable prices with cheap essay writing service!



The Gold Rush


The California Gold Rush was not everything that the prospectors, or people searching for gold, believed it would be. They had many different expectations. When the gold miners were going to California to look for gold, they were obviously very excited. When they got there, they thought they would find gold and be rich. However, there were definitely many hardships. The weather there was very hot and the air was dry which made the working conditions difficult. In addition, the miners did not get paid well. Life was horrible. It was not the way the miners thought it would be. They expected a simpler job. Obviously, they were very wrong.


Before the gold miners reached California they did not realize what the weather would be like there. They did not think it would be so hot and uncomfortable to work. However, their predictions were incorrect. All day while the people mined for gold, the sun would shine down on them. To make matters worse, the air was very dry. That caused them to be very thirsty. They also go very dirty. One man’s diary entry summed up all these problems by stating, “Our feet are wet all day, while the hot sun shines down upon our heads, and the very air parches the skin like the hot air of an oven.” These working conditions for the miners were unexpected. Gold was not all over the place like they thought it was going to be, thus causing them to work very hard to find it.


Miners worked really hard and yet they got low pay. They would get up early every morning and would go wash mud in a long-Tom which is a type of washing machine which would separate gold from anything. Because the tools miners used were not that good, their work was harder. A miner wrote in a letter that he and his friends together made $.00 in one day. However, he still had to wash five dirty muddy shirts which cost 5 cents each. As a result, his pay was only $11.1 in one day, which he mentioned was more than he normally made in a day. Considering the fact that President James K. Polk once wrote that there was an increase in miners, it sounded like the miners found a lot of gold and did not find the mining to be hard. Unfortunately Polk gave them the wrong idea.


Help with essay on The Gold Rush




Once the discovery of gold in California was spread around many people went there to find gold. It was regrettable for them that it was such a difficult task. In some cases the job of mining was a waste of time because few people found much gold in any one day. Then the miners had to pay for food which was very expensive. The food they ate consisted of hard bread and salt pork which was horrible.


It is obvious that the rush for gold was not the experience that the miners expected. They risked their lives to become wealthy and few were successful.





Please note that this sample paper on The Gold Rush is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on The Gold Rush, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom research papers on The Gold Rush will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from cheap essay writing service and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Sixteen Candles

If you order your cheap essays from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Sixteen Candles. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Sixteen Candles paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in Sixteen Candles, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your Sixteen Candles paper at affordable prices with cheap essay writing service!



The 184 comedy, Sixteen Candles, written and directed by John Hughes is a glimpse into Samantha Baker’s life on the weekend of her sixteenth birthday. Samantha is anticipating turning “sweet sixteen” and is expecting something really special to happen on her birthday. To her disappointment, her family forgets her birthday and one “tragedy” leads to another. This movie clearly depicts some of the struggles and fantasies that adolescents face in a lighthearted manner.


A strong theme in this movie is physical and social maturation during the awkward age of adolescence. Samantha faces a day that she has dreamed about for years and abruptly realizes that her fantasy is not coming true. As she is getting ready for school on her birthday, Friday morning, she talks to a friend on the phone voicing her frustration about “physically still being 15 years old.” Physical signs of puberty are a growth spurt, pubic hair growth, and, in girls, a widening of hips, beginning of menarche, and breast development. According to Berger (000), “We know that the age at which puberty starts is highly variable normal children begin to notice body changes at any time between the ages of 8 and 14, with the hormonal changes beginning a year or two earlier for girls than boys.” A teenager is in the transition from childhood to adulthood and finds that this can be a difficult time. Johnson, Bassin & Shaw (16) state, “During this period, they must contend with physical changes, pressure to conform to current social trends and peer behaviors, and increased expectations from family members, teachers, and other adults.”


The people and experiences that Samantha encounters on her birthday depict the angst of a teenager. Initially, Samantha reacts to a harried mother who is trying to get the kids off to school and her husband to work. As she is leaving the house, she realized that her family has forgotten her special day. Though her friend tries to console her, she is deeply hurt that her family forgot her birthday. Due to the hormonal changes that girls experience during adolescence, emotions and moods change more quickly than they did before (Berger, 000). These heightened emotions that Samantha is experiencing, which makes her even more sensitive, contribute to her anger, disappointment, and devastation over her forgotten sixteenth birthday.


As children go through puberty, the hormonal changes wreak havoc on one’s emotions as mentioned above. Berger (000) states, “The strength of all these reactions depends on the social context. Even the one change that is linked most directly to hormones, specifically thinking about sex, is powerfully affected by culture, which can shape such thoughts into enjoyable fantasies, shameful preoccupations, or an impetus to action.” Therefore, the subject of sex is a common one among adolescents as they become more aware of their sexuality. Sixteen Candles, a movie portraying the turmoil of adolescence, includes sexuality as a major theme.


Do my essay on Sixteen Candles CHEAP !




At the end of this long day at school, Samantha comes home to discover that her paternal grandparents have taken over her bedroom, and her maternal grandparents are checking out her “womanly figure.” As she is greets her maternal grandparents in the hallway, her grandmother mentions how developed her breasts are. To Samantha’s dismay, she reaches up and pinches her breasts. As she runs away mortified, she states, “I can’t believe I was felt up by my grandmother.” She also notices that everyone is so focused on her sister’s wedding, to take place the next day; even her grandparents forget her birthday.


In many high schools, the student body is made up of the “jocks, popular crowd, and the dorks,” and those just trying to find their niche amongst the people and activities. Samantha’s school is no exception. As Samantha is thinking about Jake, Ted, the leader of a group of “dorky” freshmen, does whatever he can, both on the school bus and at a school dance to be noticed by her. While Ted is trying to be a “ladies man” in front of his friends, he makes a bet with them that he can “bag a babe” while at the school dance. To demonstrate his success, he is to show his friends a pair of girls’ underpants. He makes several attempts to dance with Samantha and spend time with her. Feeling humiliated, she runs to hide in a school body shop and sits quietly in an old car. This is where she finds some solace and makes a friend.


Ted follows Samantha to the car in the shop and they have a thoughtful conversation. Despite some awkward moments between them, such as when Ted tries to climb on top of Samantha and kiss her, a friendship forms. Ted confesses that he has never slept with a girl and made a bet with his friends that he would “do it” with Samantha. She confesses that she is saving herself for Jake Ryan, a popular senior. As Ted assures her that Jake had asked him about her on the dance floor, Samantha agrees to give Ted her underpants. Since this is enough excitement for one evening, Samantha goes home and Ted parties with his friends.


In addition to social and physical maturation as well as sexuality, another theme in this movie is that of underage drinking. Jake’s girlfriend, Carolyn, invites over a “few” friends to Jake’s house after the dance as his parents are out of town. At this teenage party, there is no shortage of beer or hormones. Berger (000) states, “the use of alcohol and other drugs has become a part of many young people’s lives in every industrialized nation in the world.” It appears that most teens at this party, with the exception of Jake and Ted, are drinking alcohol. According to Berger (000), “Young people’s likelihood of using drugs is directly related to their peers’ attitudes about the acceptability and riskiness of drug use � especially if their parents do not discuss it with them.” There is no citable example from the film of parent-directed discussion on the risks of alcohol or other drugs. As the Ryan’s house becomes trashed and the party ends, Jake discovers that the only ones left at his house are Ted, the freshmen dork, and Carolyn, his girlfriend who is drunk and passed out. Ted and Jake share their stories � Ted gives Jake Samantha’s underpants and tells him of his desire to “bag a babe.” Jake tells Ted that he wants a serious relationship and is no longer interested in Carolyn and confesses his increasing interest in Samantha Baker.


Jake has a plan. His mission will be to return the panties to Samantha and Ted can take home his drunk, beautiful, girlfriend. Ted agrees to drive Carolyn home with the hope that he might “get lucky.” Once daylight, Carolyn wakes up in Ted’s arms while sitting in a church parking lot and does not know who he is. They introduce each other and discover that they probably had sex that night. Berger (000) reports on a 17 survey of high school students did by Benson reporting that the “drinker” � those who had drunk six or more times in the previous month, were more than twice as likely to be sexually active. If Carolyn had not been drunk, she probably would not have been in a position to apparently have sex with Ted, the dorky freshmen student. Surprisingly, Carolyn realizes that she enjoyed being in Ted’s arms and she and Jake agree to see other people.


Saturday, the day of Ginny’s wedding, arrives. Samantha’s family is focused on the wedding and also discovers they forgot Samantha’s birthday. The wedding is a disaster because Ginny is overdosed on muscle relaxants to ease her menstrual cramps. Ginny staggers down the aisle and eventually gets married. After the ceremony Samantha’s family joins the crowd outside, departs, and leaves her behind on the church steps. Jake Ryan is standing across the street watching her and motions her to his red sports car. Samantha joins him and later she and Jake are sitting across from a birthday cake glowing with candles.


According to Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages, the adolescent is going through the stage of “Identity vs. Role Confusion.” “The adolescent is discovering how he or she fits into the social world, and struggles with all the options of who he or she is and who he or she can become” (Chabonneau 15). During this time, an adolescent is either confused about what roles to play or is establishing an identity for him or herself. Berger (000) states, “In the process, adolescents attempt to develop sexual, moral, political, and religious identities that are relatively stable….” Freud’s Psychosexual Stage for the adolescent is the Genital Stage. At this time, a young person seeks sexual satisfaction and sexual stimulation by exploring heterosexual relationships (Berger 000).


John Hughes, the screenwriter and director of Sixteen Candles, clearly shows Samantha’s struggle with finding her identity and highlighting the many aspects of teenage development. These areas include physical growth and sexual maturation as biosocial development, adolescent thinking and education as cognitive development, and discovering one’s identity and interacting with parents and peers as psychosocial development (Berger, 000). Though this movie focuses more on Samantha’s physical and social development and interaction with peers, there are a few scenes in which she interacts with her parents and siblings. Samantha is the second of four children. She has a sister, Ginny, who is about 0, a brother, Mike, who is about 10 or 11, and a sister, Sarah who is about 8. As everyone is getting ready for school and work on Friday, and the wedding on Saturday, the family is rushing around in chaos as they all compete for time in the bathroom.





Please note that this sample paper on Sixteen Candles is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Sixteen Candles, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom research papers on Sixteen Candles will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from cheap essay writing service and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Thursday, February 2, 2012

Airborne Virus

If you order your cheap essays from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Airborne Virus. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Airborne Virus paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in Airborne Virus, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your Airborne Virus paper at affordable prices with cheap essay writing service!



Airborne Virus Control in


Hospitals


There are many examples of infectious aerosols affecting occupants of health


care facilities. It is expected, patients are often the main source of infectious


Cheap custom writing service can write essays on Airborne Virus




cases, and their presence is a potential hazard to other patients and to


employee. Certain infectious such as tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles, and


Germen measles can be spread easily in air.


Employees and visitors can also be the reason of airborne infection on





patients. Airborne droplets often carry bacteria such as S. aureus, S


epidermides, and gram-negative rods, which are common causes of


postoperative wound infections.


Cases of infection with Apergillus have been reported in


immunocompromised patients. So the activity as building construction and


renovation that may be removed from the patient care area has been shown


to increase the airborne concentration of fungus spores and the incidence of


aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients.


Bacterial Infection


Examples of bacteria that are highly infectious and are airborne and also


travel threw water are Mycobacterium, tuberculosis, and Legionella


(Legionnaire’s disease). Wells (14) showed that droplets or in agents of


5 mm or less in size can remain airborne indefinitely. This is because bacteria


are typically present in colony forming units that are larger than 1 mm.


Some authorities recommend the use of high efficiency particulate air


(HEPA) filters having test filtering efficiencies of .7% in certain areas.








Viral Infection


Examples of viruses that are airborne are chicken pox, Rubella, and measles.


Epidemiological evidence and other studies indicate that many of the


airborne that transmit infection are submicron in size. There is no know


method to effectively eliminate 100% of the viable particles. Ultra low


penetration (UPLA) filters provide the greatest efficiency available.


Attempts to deactivate viruses with ultraviolet light and chemical sprays


have not proven effective enough to be recommended by most codes as a


primary infection measure. Isolation rooms are used to prevent the spread of


airborne viruses in the health care environment.


Molds


Evidence indicates that some molds such as Aspergillis be fatal to advanced


leukemia, bone marrow transplant, and other immunocompromised patients.


Prevent the entering and escaping of infectious aerosols


The most fundamental principle for airborne infection control is the


prevention of contaminated air to enter to or escape from a room.


This can be done by these two methods.


Seal the room. Differential air pressure can be maintained only in an entirely


sealed room. It is important to obtain a reasonable close fit of all doors and


seal all wall and floor penetrations between pressurized areas. The opening


of a door between two areas reduces any existing pressure differential


between them to such a degree that its effectiveness is nullified.


Pressurize the room to prevent infiltrated contaminant. This pressure


differential causes air to flow out the room through various leakage areas.


The outward air prevents the contaminated air to enter the room. The


negative pressure difference is obtained by supplying less air to the area than


is exhausted from it.


The room should have a permanently installed visual mechanism to


constantly monitor the pressure status of the room when occupied.


Remove infectious aerosols from air


Sources of infectious aerosols are both from outside and inside of the room.


The microbial level in operating room air is proportional to the number of


people moving about in the room.


Recirculation air shall be filtered by high efficiency air filter as recommended


in table with the total air change rate as recommended in table .


Outdoor air, before introduces to the room, shall also be recirculation air.

















Dilute the contaminated room air


General ventilation maintains air quality by two processes removal


and dilution of airborne contaminants. Uncontaminated supply air mixes


with contaminated air, which is subsequently removed from the room by the


exhaust system. These processes removes the concentration of droplet nuclei


in the room air. The outdoor air should be supplied as recommended in the


table and should be filtrated by air filter recommended in table 1.


Prevent micro-organism growth in the room


To control micro-organism aerosols, it is important to always keep room


relative humidity below 60%. Besides the air, the surface of the room must


not wet or damp to prevent micro-organism growth on the


surface.


The wall, floor, ceiling, door, window should be made of smooth surface,


easy t clean material. Air duct and pipe should not pass the room without


ceiling. Lighting fixture should have scaled cover.


Disinfect the air


Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation, was extensively studied in the 10s.


UV radiation is defined as the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum


Described by wavelengths from 100 to 400 nm. For convenience of


classification , the UV spectrum has been separated into three different


wavelength bands. Commercially available UV lamps used for germicidal


purposes are low-pressure mercury vapor lamps that emit radiant energy in


the UV-C range, predominantly at a wavelength of 5.7nm.


In duct irradiation systems, UV lamps are inside ducts that remove air from


rooms to disinfect the air before it is circulated. When UVGI duct systems


are properly designed, installed, and maintained, high levels of UV radiation


may be produced in duct work. The only potential for human exposure to this


occurs during maintenance operations.


Operating Room


Studies or the operating room air distribution devices and observation of


installations in industrial clean room indicate that delivery of the airborne


of the air from the ceiling, with a downward movement to several exhaust


inlets located on the opposite walls, is probably the most effective air


movement pattern for maintaining the concentration of contamination at an


acceptable level.


Operating room suites are typically in use no more than 8 to 1 hr’s per day.


For energy conservation, the air-condition system should allow a reduction


in the air supplied to some or all of the operating rooms when possible.


Positive space pressure must be maintained at reduced air volumes to ensure


sterile conditions.


Intensive Care Unit


These units serve ill patients, from postoperative to coronary patients.


Air pressure should be maintained positive with respect to any adjoining


by supplying 15% excess air. A variable range temperature capability of 4


to 7c, a relative humidity of 0% minimum and 60% maximum. Filter


efficiencies should be in accordance with table 1.


Conclusion


Hospitals are risk environments for airborne infection, because infection


sources and immunocompromised people are at the same place. Currently,


hospital’s are under programs to obtain certification for hospital quality


system, which is called Hospital Accreditation or HA. Accordingly, hospitals


are encouraged to promote safe and healthy environment fro patients,


relatives, visitors, and employee. However, most hospitals lack knowledge of


guidelines to effectively implement the airborne infection control measures.


This paper included basic knowledge of airborne infection, science of airborne


infection control, and the measures to effectively control infection and the


specific design criteria for several functions in hospitals.

















Please note that this sample paper on Airborne Virus is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Airborne Virus, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom research papers on Airborne Virus will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from cheap essay writing service and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Wednesday, February 1, 2012

To what extent do the texts of the Enlightenment use nature as a critique of society

If you order your cheap essays from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on To what extent do the texts of the Enlightenment use nature as a critique of society. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality To what extent do the texts of the Enlightenment use nature as a critique of society paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in To what extent do the texts of the Enlightenment use nature as a critique of society, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your To what extent do the texts of the Enlightenment use nature as a critique of society paper at affordable prices with cheap essay writing service!



Brenda Elson U771 TMA 07 A06


How do Enlightenment texts use the idea of ‘nature’ in their critiques of society and/or culture? Discuss with detailed reference to three texts.


In answering this question I shall be referring to visual depictions of still life and natural scenes when discussing how Diderot used nature as a critique of society. In Wollstoncraft I will be using Natural law and Human Nature when discussing how she used Nature as a critique of society and culture. In The Creation I shall be using life in natural surroundings, enviroment, to describe how Haydn responded to the desire of Society. I hope to show how Diderot and Wollstoncraft criticised society and culture traditions and desired cultural and social reform respectively whilst Haydn rather than criticising, actually responded to European society’s taste in using nature to paint sound pictures. I hope to show explicitly the critiques in extracts of the texts.


Diderot’s Salon 1765 was written very amusingly for Grimm’s La Correspondance Litteraire, In 1765 the social society in France was in the grip of a new culture that embellished the idea of morality, however the very superficial morality did not compare to the meaning of morality used by Wollstonecraft. The emotional, frivolous morality that Diderot seemed to be caught up in was measured by who cried the most or to what extent individuals fainted or suffered the vapours.





Diderot starts this article with an enlightened quote, “His thinking does not result in smoke after a flashing fire, but in the light emerging from the smoke” (Texts II p.70) perhaps explaining that his commentary was not purely in sympathy with the current mode. He writes in his introduction “I allowed time for an impression to come to me, to enter me. I opened my soul to their effects I allowed myself to be penetrated by them” (TextsII p.6B). This perhaps is a criticism of the little respect given by the bourgeoisie who would have skirted the exhibition only stopping at the more salacious paintings such as Baudouin’s Girl scolded by her mother the subject of which they would have identified with. It portrays a young girl caught by her mother with her clothes in disarray with a view of her lover, the perpetrator, escaping up the stairs rearranging his own clothing and it was indicative of French society at this time.


The way in which Diderot criticised this culture using nature was to stress which paintings managed to penetrate him to his soul. When reading the Salon it is extremely apparent that Diderot was praising Genre, domestic scenes and still life paintings categorised as lower genre by the Royal Academy in Paris, history paintings were the highest genre. The painters that Diderot praised were not known as history painters or Appointed to the Court as was Boucher. Of the painters Diderot promoted in his article, Chardin was the most surprising and Diderot wrote that it was not the subject, although he did praise the fruits of Nature i.e. fish and fowl etc., but Chardin’s technique in colour and light that he thought was perfect. The painter Boucher was heavily criticised for repetition, again criticising the preferences of the high bourgeois society.


Chardin was trying to raise the genre of Genre and still life painting probably based on his liking for the Flemish painters, domestic scenes. By 1765 he was painting Still life and using everyday household subjects such as a kitchen table laid out with fresh fowl and fish or a garden seat laid out with fruit of various types. Diderot’s writing in response to a Chardin still life was almost lyrical “ How eloquently they speak to the artist. How much they tell him about the imitation of nature, about the science of colour, about harmony. How the air circulates around these objects the light of the sun does not better harmonise the disparities of the beings on which it shines” (Texts II p.77). About Boucher he wrote, “The degradation of taste, of colour, of composition, of characters, of expression, of line has followed step by step the corruption of murals” Texts II p.7. Diderot used emotive words to show the reader that he disapprove of the current taste of the Parisian Society. Of Chardin’s low genre The Scullery Maid 178 Diderot writes “Chardin can show a kitchen with a servant girl bending over a barrel…but notice how accurate the action of the servant is, how her dress delineates the upper part of her figure and how the folds of this petticoat delineate all that is below” and of Boucher’s, society favoured, fantastical, allergorical and unnatural Jupiter transformed into Diana in order to surprise Callisto he writes mockingly “… he is in profile, he is leaning over Callisto’s knees; with one hand he is trying to gently push aside her underclothes; that’s the right hand. His left hand is fondling her chin. Now there’s two hands well occupied” (Texts II p. 74). It is very clear that Diderot is criticising the social culture of the day and their standard of taste.


Mary Wollstonecraft’s The Vindication of the rights of women was first published in 17. It is a direct criticism of the way in which society has manipulated women and discusses the ways in which women can elevate themselves to a more equal position with men. In Chapter II she discusses the prevailing opinion of a sexual character and writes that the women “are told in their infancy, and taught by example of their mothers, that a little knowledge of human weakness, justly termed cunning, soft-ness of temper, outward obedience, and a scrupulous attention to a puerile kind of propriety, will obtain them the protection of man” (Texts II p.40). This passage sums up the effect culture, such as that implicitly described in Diderots Salon 1765, affected women. Wollstonecraft’s argument is based on the human nature that she asserts is endowled in the same proportions to man and women by nature. It is only the lack of education allowed to women by society that prevents them from being “permitted to turn to the fountain of light, and not forced to shape their course by the twinkling of a mere satellite” (Texts II p.41). Here she concedes that women are able to learn to reason but not to the degree that would allow them equal status to men. Until society changes it’s philosophy on women’s education nothing can be achieved in the persuasion of women that “the regal homage which they receive” (Texts II p.4) from men that is “so intoxicating” (Texts II p.4) is an illegitimate power which is obtained by degrading themselves. They must “return to nature and equality” Texts II p.4 if they wish to live normal and happy lives. What she means is that if their development was left to nature and their education was equal to that of men they would be able to reason for them selves and live satisfying useful lives. She blames the current inadequacies in women on “kings and nobles” who are not enlightened by reason and who are afraid to depart from their “gaudy hereditary trappings” (Texts II p.4).


Wollstonecraft blames Rousseau’s philosophy, among others, for the artificial weakness affected on women making them more useless to society. She writes that the “random exertions of a sort of instinctive common sense, never brought to the test of reason prevents their generalizing matters of fact � so they do to-day, what they did yesterday, merely because they did it yesterday” (Texts II p.4). She likens women to soldiers and writes soldiers are “sent into the world before their minds have been stored with knowledge or fortified by principles” (Texts II p.4) again intimating that both are not allowed to develop to their full potential as nature intended. She criticises the culture in Paris and shows to what extent it abuses human nature “riches and hereditary honours have made ciphers of women to give consequence to the numerical figure; and idleness has produced a mixture of gallantry and despotism into society, which leads the very men who are the slaves of their mistresses to tyrannize over their sisters, wives, and daughters.” (Texts II p.4).


She asserts that if the female mind is strengthened by enlarging it, women would not suffer from blind obedience and would not be kept in the dark.


Rousseau she quotes declares that “a woman should never, for a moment, feel herself independent, that she should be governed by fear to exercise her natural cunning, and made a coquettish slave in order to render her a more alluring object of desire” (Texts II p.44) Her answer is “What nonsense! When will a great man arise with sufficient strength of mind to puff away the fumes which pride and sensuality have thus spread over the subject!” (Texts II p.44).


She has criticised the nobility, and the bourgeois for the failure of society to allow women to grow up and form the reason formed by the human nature that nature bestows on the male and female infant. She ends this chapter by saying, “Brutal force has hitherto governed the world, and that the science of politics is in its infancy, is evident from philosophers scrupling to give the knowledge most useful to man that determinate distinction” (Texts II p.47), perhaps a criticism of the Philosophie Rousseau.


In the middle of the eighteenth century whilst in the audience at an instrumental musical concert a prominent critic, writer M De Fontenelle cried out “Sonata what are you trying to tell me?” (Texts 1 Sonata p.) He was frustrated that the music did not paint an imaginary picture for him. His comment depicts the general mood of devotee to music at that time.


Another quote from an article in the Encyclopdie titled Instrumental sums up what the prominent critic wanted “The composer would do well always to keep ion mind the idea of some person, some situation or some passion and to concentrate so completely on this idea that eventually he seems to hear speaking the very person who is in the situation” Texts I p. ) . French society in the mid to late eighteenth century wanted instrumental music to paint a sound picture of natural surroundings in the same way artists painted landscapes. Up till then music virtually had no meaning to the audience other than the technical aspect, unless is was accompanied by words. In Germany musicians developed the Crescendo and in Mannheim they developed smaller sound rises in music known as ‘rockets’ which departed from the usual echo type of music formed by loud music echoed by soft music usually achieved by separating the instruments and having the softer music produced from a distance.


D’Alembert wrote, in his discourse on music in the Encyclopedie “music speaks at the same time to the imagination and to the senses and by 1751 music was becoming a kind of discourse or language displaying various feelings and passions. Society wanted music that provided feelings of pleasure or distress through hearing in the way objects provide it through sight.


To achieve this D’Alembert suggested the musician picks out the sound in nature that produces the required emotion and duplicates the sound with music, and this is exactly what the music of The Creation does. It creates D’Almberts ‘sound picture’


Haydn wrote the music of The Creation following a visit to London where he heard Handels Massiah. His reported response to this was that he would have to go home to Germany and learn to write music that would “produce appropriate feeling” this may implicitly tell us that no musician in Germany was using nature to create music with meaning. Vivaldi wrote The Four Seasons, which along with other pieces created the conventions for music depicting Nature. These were known by the time The Creation was heard.


The Creation was first performed in 171 and embodies all that the French Philosophies desired of music earlier in the century. It imitated nature using descriptive music accompanied by oratory sourced from Milton’s Paradise Lost. The systematic form Haydn used of presenting each day of the creation was also in line with ‘Enlightened’ views. Each piece of descriptive music pertaining to nature be it elements of weather, vegetation or animal is wrapped in recitative music and Massiah type music.


Based on the book of Genesis the opening cord is very loud. perhaps discordant, and represented chaos and is followed by music representing the various weather elements during the first days. Rain is depicted by melodic lines that descend the notes are evenly spaced and continuous to give the impression of raindrops. Hail is represented by shorter notes to give the impression of faster and heavier drops while snow is written as single notes separated by rests to give the impression of floating. The music representing the lion sounds similar to a roar while Haydn uses peaceful slow music to represent Cows in a rural pastoral setting. As a critique of Society Haydn can be demonstrated as responding to society’s requirements as far as painting musical pictures, using poetry, systematically, in a very ‘Enlightened’ way. To use the words of the oratorio to describe the period “…and the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep…And god said Let there be light and there was light… and God divided the light from the darkness” and so The Creation responded to the desires of European society and the French Philosophies.


Diderot used sentiment, emotion and instinct and spoke of natural, simple pictures that moved him as opposed to the much admired but untruthful to nature allegorical fantasies of societies favourite Boucher. While Wollstoncraft criticised French societies human nature for the inadequacies of French women in her time.


Bibliography


The Creation Text 1 The Enlightenment


Diderot’s Salon 1765 Text The Enlightenment


The vindication of the rights of women Wollstoncraft Texts The Enlightenment














Bibliography


The Creation Text 1 The Enlightenment


Diderot’s Salon 1765 Text The Enlightenment


The vindication of the rights of women Wollstoncraft Texts The Enlightenment





Please note that this sample paper on To what extent do the texts of the Enlightenment use nature as a critique of society is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on To what extent do the texts of the Enlightenment use nature as a critique of society, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom research papers on To what extent do the texts of the Enlightenment use nature as a critique of society will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from cheap essay writing service and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!