-->

Pages

Saturday, April 28, 2012

Building Structure

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Building Structure. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Building Structure paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in Building Structure, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your Building Structure paper at affordable prices with livepaperhelp!



In Building structures there are many things to think of. You must know how strong you


have to build the structure and also how much weight it must hold. It has to be very strong in


order to hold up through the weather and threw the years it is being used. The things a structure


goes threw is the thing people think about when designing the structure. Shape, weight, and how


Cheap University Papers on Building Structure




much the material will cost to buy.


There are many different types of material used in building a structure. There is a choice


on how strong the building has to be in order to stay standing. The materials they use are wood,


cement, steel, plastic, brick, and stone. The safety of these materials depend on how they are used


in building. If anyone uses any of these in the wrong way it probable will not stand for very long.


Wood is the safest natural made object that is used in making a structure. It is a material that is


strong in tension and in compression (Salvadori 6). Wood can hold a lot of weight since most


houses are built from wood. Wood will most likely be used for hundreds of years because it is so


widely available. People will use wood because it is low in cost compared to any of the other


materials used in building.


Cement is one of the materials used in the construction of the structure of a building.


Cement is also used in the making of a bridge because it can stay standing over a long gap.


Cement is more expensive than wood because there is more to the cement than the wood. Cement


has multiple ingredients mixed in, that is one of the reasons it is more expensive. One of the others


is because wood is cut down and the cut into the boards that is needed, but cement people have to


mix the ingredients. We can build taller structures out of cement because it is stronger than wood.


wood is only good to a certain height than it becomes dangerous to have. Cement that height is


greater because the cement can be stacked higher and hold more weight. It is much safer to build


a tall building with the cement than it is with the wood.


Steel is the safest material to use because it is the strongest. You can build high


skyscrapers or sturdy bridges that can hold tons of weight. They use steel because they build high


into the sky with it. It is the sturdiest material used in building today. With this material houses are


safer and so are many other buildings that people are in on a daily bases. Steel is also a man made


material. we cannot get steel from a tree growing in the backyard or by diving deep into the ocean


and digging it out. People work hard everyday to make steel for building. It might not be for just


a building either.


Plastic is being used more and more as we make advances in the building of structures( ).


The main use of plastic is for safety. There is two terms for plastic. One is in the chemistry field


which means a man made material, and there is the term in the building field that means a material


is not elastic anymore ( Salvadori ).


Wood is a very strong material used in building structures. There are many types of wood.


Some of the wood is very strong and it can hold way more weight than others. The there is some


wood that is very weak and would only look good as a piece of furniture. Many things are built


from wood because it is so strong. They use wood in houses to build the support of the house.


They also build bridges that only need to hold so much weight at a time. A lot of the smaller


structures would be built out of wood.


Concrete is a man made material that is very strong. It is made out of a mixture of water,


sand, small stones, and a gray powder called cement ( Salvadori 5 ). Concrete is strong like rock.


We use it for building many things. We use it to construct a sidewalk, driveway, and we even use


it to make a road. We also use concrete in building structures for a building. We sometimes use it


for the core of a skyscraper. We even use it in a pain old building. It of course has to be strong


enough to hold up a skyscraper in various types of weather. A skyscraper needs a lot of support


to stay standing, that is why we sometimes use concrete.


Stone was used by the Romans to build their bridges and roads. The Romans were also


very good a building many things. They had came up with many ways of building structures.


Stone is a very strong material used in the building of some structures. We sometimes use it to


build the structure of a fireplace. We use mortar to connect the stones together. Mortar is the


mixture of lime, sand, and water. We use the mortar because it will harden to be just as hard as


the rock or stone.


Steel is a very strong material used in building. Steel is one of the strongest materials that we use


today in the construction of a structure. Steel is used in many different types of structures. We use


it in bridges, skyscrapers, and in some smaller building. Steel is a smart choice when designing a


tall building like a skyscraper. it can hold up for many years.


Please note that this sample paper on Building Structure is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Building Structure, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Building Structure will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from livepaperhelp and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



The effects of suburbanisation

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on The effects of suburbanisation. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality The effects of suburbanisation paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in The effects of suburbanisation, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your The effects of suburbanisation paper at affordable prices with livepaperhelp!



Suburbanization is the growth of residential districts near to or on the outskirts of towns and cities. This urban dynamic is in effect in the township of Camden and has been perpetuated by the planning of a new estate, Bridgewater. Camden covers 06 square kilometers and is located approximately 61km south west of the Sydney CBD. Camden is situated on the Nepean River and consequently has limitations placed upon its urban development by the flood plains, which surround it. The flood plains also make the land around Camden productive agricultural land.





In the year 001 Camden had one of the highest rates of growth in Australia at 7.7%. This was due to growth of residential estates in Narrellen which account for the major portion of overall growth with new suburbs such as Mount Annan, Harrington Park, Spring Hill, The Cascades and Garden Gates. This trend has slowed in 00 to 6.8% but is set to increase again due to the effect of suburbanization. The impacts of Suburbanization in Camden are seen in several key areas the development of Bridgewater estate, Harrington Park and the area of open space left for urban expansion.


Year Population Increase on previous year Growth %


Cheap University Papers on The effects of suburbanisation




001 41,460 71 7.7%


00 44,44 04 6.8%


Bridgewater estate is an excellent example of the impacts of suburbanization in a country town. Bridgewater is situated on the edge of south Camden and has been designed in three stages. Stage one has been named the Bridgewater collection and is situated on the western end of the estate, on Macarthur circuit. This stage entailed the building of designer homes in order to attract buyers. The land and house packages were sold together in order to have a design for the street. The second stage is under construction and the land price has increased by 0% on the original stage one land packages. This has been attributed to the increase in interest in the Bridgewater estate. The estate is situated on the metropolitan fringe and hence is an example of suburbanization in not only Camden but also Sydney. The positive impacts this estate and suburbanization has had on Camden can be seen in the increase in land price in the south Camden area. Suburbanization also has a positive affect on the employment opportunity in the area it is active. One of the negative impacts caused by suburbanization is the damage done to the environment as a result of the alteration of the natural environment. Bridgewater is being built on land, which was formerly Camden Park estate and hence has affected the natural habitat of many animals.


Harrington Park, much the same as Bridgewater, is a great example of suburbanisation and it impact on Camden. Harrington Park is on the northern side of Camden just outside of Narellan. Harrington Park is several years older than the Bridgewater project and hence the impact that it has had on Camden is far more evident. Before the construction of Harrington Park there was no need for a shopping centre in Narellan. The only shops in Narellan were on Camden valley way and there were only very few. Today Narellan has a shopping centre with 100+ stores and a large commercial and industrial area. Suburbanisation was a major factor that went into the development of Narellan. The increase in population made it possible to sustain a shopping centre in 16 and two years later the population had increased that much that the shopping centre had to be extended. Today in Narellan there is two shopping centres and construction has just begun on a third. There is a community recreational centre and three soccer teams. These are all examples of positive impacts that suburbanisation has had on Camden. This urban dynamic has lead to the dramatic increase in the industrial and commercial sectors with in Camden. The negative impacts that have occurred due to suburbanisation can be seen in several areas. The main being the environment, the increase in building has destroyed many native habitats and has lead to an increase in salinity. The Narellan creek has been destroyed by ever increasing levels of salt in the ground water. This has prompted the Narellan creek project which is designed to enforce many anti-salinity measures which are in place. An example of this is when the land was cleared to build Harrington Park the water level increased so much that channels had to be built to move the ground water away from building sites.


Open space in Camden consists mainly of sports grounds, parks and crown land. Council’s Strategic Plan identifies that an important part of managing new development in Camden is to ensure that all residents have reasonable access to recreational and community resources. The total area of open space in the Camden LGA as at the 0th June 001 is 585 hectares or 0.01 hectares per capita. This is an increase of 1 hectares or 0.0004 hectares per capita from the previous reporting period. The general standard required by the Department of Urban Affairs and Planning for the area of open space is .8 hectares/1000 people or 0.008 per capita. Camden has 1 hectares per thousand people; this is above the area of open space in other Western Sydney Councils. Blacktown for example has 4.7, Holroyd 5.6, and Parramatta 8.1, Penrith Council 6.84 hectares per 1,000 people. This subsequently means that Camden does still have room to grow and that the impact of over population due to suburbanisation is not a problem at this time. However it was predicted in the 00 Camden Council Growth Report that in the year 010 Camden will have increased its persons per hector by nearly 50%. This is, in part, due to suburbanisation.


In conclusion, the impacts of suburbanisation are evident in the Camden Township. Its growth over the past decade shows the influence this urban dynamic has had on the development in the Camden region. Bridgewater estate and Harrington park estate are both primary example of the need for new residential estates due to the increasing influence of suburbanisation. Camden is essentially a dormitory township with the employment opportunities being far outweighed by the population. This is a typical trait of suburbs or towns affected by suburbanisation as many of the residents commute to their work mainly situated in the inner city area. The fast depletion of open space in Camden is also becoming a problem with predictions in this area acquiring the council’s immediate attention.





Please note that this sample paper on The effects of suburbanisation is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on The effects of suburbanisation, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on The effects of suburbanisation will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from livepaperhelp and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Friday, April 27, 2012

Christian Perspective on Abortion

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Christian Perspective on Abortion. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Christian Perspective on Abortion paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in Christian Perspective on Abortion, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your Christian Perspective on Abortion paper at affordable prices with livepaperhelp!



The Christian Perspective on Abortion





Abortion is the act of willfully removing a growing fetus from within the mothers’ body. Some people consider abortion to be wrong, while others feel that it is up to the mother as to what she would like to do with her body. Even though there is now a law that states that abortion is legal, and is not a form of murder, many people would tend to disagree. One of the main questions that Christians would ask is ‘What does the bible have to say about abortion?’ The bible never specifically says that abortion is wrong, but there are some verses that do provide indications as to God’s opinion on abortion. Due to the fact that the Bible does not support abortion, most Christians would feel that abortion is wrong, and therefore, believe that the act of abortion should not be accepted by the church.


How is an Abortion performed?


Cheap University Papers on Christian Perspective on Abortion




There are four main techniques that are used in performing an abortion. There are a few different options that doctors may use for the first technique. The first technique is called Dilatation and Curettage, or D&C. With this form of abortion, the doctor dilates the woman’s cervix and then “inserts a loop-shaped steel knife, or curette, to cut the pre-natal human being and placenta into pieces; and, after cutting… the abortionist withdraws the pieces, generally through a suction tube” (Van Der Breggen 188, ). The next form, which is very similar to the D&C technique, is called suction abortion. The only difference with this technique is that the knife is on the end of the suction tube, thereby cutting and removing the baby simultaneously. Both of these techniques take place during the first three months of development, or the first trimester. The final option is called Dilation and Evaculation, or D&E. This form of abortion generally takes place after the first trimester, and involves a process called ‘“morcellation’, [which is] a process whereby the baby’s body is methodically dismembered and the baby’s head crushed, thereby allowing the [body] to be extracted, or evacuated, in piecemeal fashion” (Van Der Breggen 188, ). The advantage of this technique is that the mother can avoid the pain normally endured during childbirth. However, during these techniques, no anesthetic is provided for the baby. Since unborn babies can feel pain nine weeks after conception (Primm 1, ), the baby would be able to feel the knife cutting through them. So even though in the last technique the mother is released of her pain, the baby is not.


The second form of abortion usually preformed is the ‘installation technique’. This technique is characterized by the injection of a deadly chemical into the amniotic sac. This chemical, generally being a saline solution, is then inhaled by the baby, which causes the baby to become dehydrated, and also causes internal hemorrhaging. The final step that occurs during this form of abortion is that the skin of the baby is slowly corroded away. This process takes about an hour to complete, which means that the baby is killed slowly and painfully.


The prostaglandin abortion is the third technique. Prostaglandin is a chemical that when inserted into the muscles of the uterus, causes the uterus to violently contract. In this procedure, the baby is not killed directly by the chemical but by the contractions of the uterus. The fourth, and final, technique that can be used to abort a growing fetus is a hysterectomy. A hysterectomy is preformed when the pregnancy is too far along to perform the other techniques, or when something went wrong during one of the other techniques. When the question is asked as to how an abortion is performed, Hank Van Der Breggen answers by saying that it is done “with barbarous brutality” (188,4).


Pro-choice View


People who call themselves ‘pro-choice’, are people who feel as though abortion should be up to the mother as to whether she aborts her fetus or not. This decision should be primarily based on the interest of the mother, but also partially based on the interest of the child. Pro-choice people tend to focus on the rights of the woman, personal and state freedoms, and the rights of the unborn baby. However, fetal rights are becoming less and less important. Abortion is seen as a very viable answer to the problem of having an unwanted pregnancy.


Legality


The abortion law has really helped the people who are pro-choice. Before this law came out, however, there were many different factors that were considered. One of the reasons that abortions were legalized was because people thought that if it were legal to have abortions there would be less ‘back-street’ abortions taking place (Gardener 17, 40). A warning was made clear that unless the act of abortion was legalized many women would have to go through the pain, and possible death, of having an abortion preformed by someone who was unqualified. Another key aspect of the abortion law is that it should be the women’s right to choose if they want their baby or not. The idea is that if the woman does not actually want a baby, then she would be doing the baby a favor by aborting it.


This leads to the next point in the abortion law; every child has a right to be wanted and to be healthy. Dr.W.H. states that “a child ideally should be born into a home where he or she was conceived in an atmosphere of love, where his or her arrival is contemplated and planned for and where provisions are made for his or her infancy and childhood” (Gardener 17, 44). This would indicate that if a child will not be able to grow up in a house where he or she will be loved and cherished, as a child should be, it should be aborted for the sake of the child. And due to the creation of the abortion law, abortions can be performed in a way that is less risky than it was when there were only back-street abortions taking place.


Is the fetus a human?


The question as to whether the fetus is a human or not, has been one of great enquiry for many years. Many people feel that since the fetus developed enough to live outside of its mother, it is not a person. The baby can only eat what its’ mother eats, and go where its’ mother goes, therefore, the fetus is simply part of its’ mother, and is not to be considered a person. With this in mind, abortion cannot be murder due to the fact that in order for a murder to occur, there must be an actual living person killed. According to most pro-choice supporters, the fetus is not a human.


It’s my body


Many people who are pro-choice feel that since the baby is still in the mother’s body at the time of the abortion, it is not murder. This is due to the fact that since the baby does everything that the mother does it must simply be a temporary addition to the mother herself. Most abortionists’ feel that the fetus is just part of it’s mother, and so there is no issue as to whether or not the mother has the right to remove something that she doesn’t want. The fetus has been described as “just a blob of tissue, nothing more than a tumor” (Primm 1, 1). When a fetus is thought of as nothing more than a tumor, there can be no issue in removing it. Just as a person may want a tumor removed from their body, a mother my want their baby removed.


Ethics and Morality


When it comes to the topic of abortion, many people wonder if it’s ethically or morally right. Is it justifiable to remove a growing fetus from within the mother’s body? Or should a baby be forced to grow up in a home where it is neither cared for nor loved? According to many pro-choicers, abortion is morally the right thing to do. It is a child’s right to be loved and taken care of, and if the parents will not meet this need then the child should not be. It would be better for the child to not live at all, than live a life of neglect and maltreatment.


Another issue that is very important in regards to the ethics of abortion is under what circumstances the child was conceived. It is a hard question to answer as to whether or not a person who becomes pregnant out of a rape situation should be forced to give birth to her child. Everyday of the nine-month term the mother would be reminded of what happened on the night she conceived. Is it ethically right to force the mother to continuously remember the trauma she may have gone through?


Since the baby is technically not a person yet, the baby does not have any rights, and it can’t be morally wrong to remove a blob of tissue from within the mother’s body. Therefore, the fetus is simply a new section of the mother’s body, and is not a person, so there can’t be any moral reasons to argue against the act of abortion. Or as others put it “a fetus is a human body lacking a human soul, … therefore abortion is not a moral issue, for the fetus is not yet a person” (Shoemaker 176, 4). Abortion is simply the removal of an unwanted fetus, and since the fetus is unwanted, then abortion is actually doing the unborn baby a favor.


Pro-life View


The pro-life view on abortion is that everybody has rights, including the fetus, so abortion is wrong. A pro-life person, or an anti-abortionist defines abortion as “the taking of [an] innocent human life” (Gorman 18, 5). Anti-abortionists value life, and feel that every fetus has a life worth saving. There are other alternatives offered to women who don’t want their babies, and therefore abortion is not a viable option.


Legality


Many people who agree with the pro-life stance on abortion would also agree that greater restrictions on the abortion laws would be good. While many people feel that the fetus is a person, “the Supreme Court decided that until viability the state has no compelling interest in the fetus” (Sproul 10, 1.). The government is so concerned about the strong overpowering the weak, but there seems to be no concern over helpless fetus’s being destroyed everyday. Most pro-life supporters would feel that the law should be stricter to reduce the number of abortions that are occurring purely because the mother does not want the inconvenience of having a baby.


Is the fetus a human?


Posing this question to a person who is against abortion will provide an answer that is quite different from the one who supports abortion. The question that is sometimes asked is, ‘what is necessary in order for something to be classified as a person?’ Some say that a human simply needs a body, while other say that since the baby needs its mother, the baby isn’t a person until birth, or until it reaches viability. Anti-abortionists would tend to differ. The fetus does have a body; the only different is that the baby’s body is still in its developmental stages. Nonetheless, there is most definitely a body present within the womb. The statement that suggests that the baby isn’t a person until it has reached viability may be proven to be wrong in a short period of time. Scientists are still working on the “test-tube baby,” and as soon as they are able to successfully have a fertilized egg grow into a fully developed baby, the age of viability will be gone. This is because the baby will have never needed its mother, making it viable from the time of conception (Shoemaker 176, .). This would make it so that no matter what stage of development the baby is in, the fetus has to be considered a person.


Ethics and Morality


People who are against abortions generally feel as though abortion is morally, and ethically, wrong. They usually feel that there is no justification for the murder of a developing baby. It is felt by many that every child has the right to live, and therefore performing an abortion is an infringement of the rights of the baby. Abortion has also been compared to the death penalty with the exception being that the baby has committed no wrong, yet is still put to death. Another ethical problem is determining when human life actually begins. Pro-choice followers feel that life does not officially being until the baby has been delivered, and has taken its’ first real breath of air. However, most people who are against abortion feel that the baby’s life has begun from the moment of conception, therefore deeming abortion as murder. Since everyone knows that murder is morally wrong, and is punishable by imprisonment or even death, it is felt that abortion should be treated with the same regard.


The Christian Response


The hardest thing about understanding how a Christian should respond to the act of abortion is that there are no actual verses that specifically mention abortion. There are references that indicate that God has chosen the events of each person’s life from the time of conception, but there is nothing that actually states that abortion is wrong. However, the knowledge that each person’s life has been pre-planned should serve as enough evidence against abortion.


Biblical Refutations to abortion


Jeremiah 15 provides an example of how God has a purpose for each person. It says “Before I formed you in the womb I knew you, before you were born I set you apart; I appointed you as a prophet to the nations.” God had planned that Jeremiah would be a prophet before he was even formed in his mother’s womb. Exodus 1-4 is another verse that can be used as a reference towards abortion. “If men who are fighting hit a pregnant woman and she gives birth prematurely but there is no serious injury, the offender must be fined whatever the woman’s husband demands and the court allows.


But if there is serious injury, you are to take life for life.” This indicates that even though the woman would have been hit accidentally, if the baby were to die, the offender should also die. The difference between the situation in this verse and abortion is that abortion is the intentional destruction of the fetus, whereas in this case it is generally an accident.


Some information that is not found in the bible, but is still very important, is found in the Apostolic Constitution.


“The Apostolic Constitution (an eight-volume set of ecclesiastical literature compiled in the fourth century and reflecting the views of Christian theologians in previous centuries) testifies, ‘Thou shalt not slay thy child by causing abortion, nor kill that which is begotten, for everything that has been shaped and has received a soul from God, if it be slain, shall be avenged as being unjustly destroyed’” (Shoemaker 176, 51).


The views of a group of Christian theologians was that abortion was wrong because every person that God gives a soul to is supposed to live. There is also a Jewish belief that no baby can be conceived without the work of the Spirit. The main point that is supported throughout scripture is that God knew everyone before they were conceived, and that it was God who created each person in their mother’s womb. God has a purpose for everyone’s life, and by aborting the growing fetus God’s great and wonderful plans are being altered.


Ethics and Morality


Once again, there isn’t any specific evidence that blatantly supports one side or the other. However, there is the implication that abortion is morally wrong. This is primarily due to the fact that in Exodus, if a person causes a woman to have premature birth and the baby dies, that person too, must die. Another reason why abortion is wrong is that no one has the right to say that their body is their own. God is the one who created each and every person, so it is only God who can claim absolute rights to anyone’s body. Without there being specific evidence in the Bible against abortion, no one can say that the Bible says abortion is wrong. People can, however, say that since the Bible does show that God has plans for each person’s life before they are born, that it would be against God’s wishes to have an abortion.


A Personal Response


The reason why I chose to research abortion as my topic for this paper is because it’s a topic that is very close to me. One morning, my older sister developed a rash. Usually this would not have caused any concern, but for some reason my mom panicked. Now, the reason why this was strange is because my mom is a nurse, and is used to handling this kind of thing. However, my mom was so distraught, that she called my dad at work and insisted that he go with her, which he did. The doctor took one look at my sister, and decided that she had German measles. He then commented to her that it was good thing that she was not pregnant, because her baby would be deformed, and no one wants a deformed baby (German measles has been known to affect fetal development). My mom told him that she may, in fact, be pregnant because her period was five days late. She then underwent a pregnancy test, and when the test came back positive, the doctor informed her that she should abort me, and even called and booked her an appointment with the abortionist for the very next day. My mom, being very distraught over the news she had just heard, went home and got my dad to call their pastor. The pastor then recommended they see a doctor from their church. The next morning my dad called the new doctor, and told his receptionist, and wife, the story. My mom was told to come in right away. On the way to the doctor’s office my parents decided that no matter what the doctor said, abortion wasn’t an option for them. Upon further examination of my sister, it was declared that she, in fact, did not have German measles, and would therefore, be of no risk to me, or my developing body.


God played such a major role in my mom being reassured about not aborting me. Every time that she questioned her actions, God showed her that she made the right decision. The strangest even that happened was that there was a two part radio broadcast on at the time, and on this broadcast was a woman who was told to abort her baby because there was another child in the house with German Measles. Now for some reason my mom was unable to hear the second part, so she did not know how the broadcast ended. However, for no apparent reason, the radio station decided to replay the second part, and it happened to be when my mom was listening to the radio. In the conclusion of part two the woman decided to have her baby, and not abort it, and the baby was born perfectly healthy, with no deformities. This provided my mom with the reassurance that everything would be all right.


In a strange way, I have actually been baptized twice; once in the womb, and again by my own decision. My parents were baptized together while my mom was pregnant with me. Of course my mom had to get the doctors permission first, but seeing as her doctor was elder at the church and would be present, there wasn’t much of an issue. During my mom’s baptism, she said these verses to me,


“For you created me in my inmost being; you knit me together in my mother’s womb. I praise you because I am fearfully and wonderfully made; I know that full well. My frame was not hidden from you when I was made in the secret place. When I was woven together in the depths of the earth, your eyes say my unformed body. All the days ordained for me were written in your book before one of them came to be” (Psalm 11-16).


These are some of my favorite verses because of the meaning that goes behind them. The best thing about these verses is that I also used them in my testimony when I was baptized. That made it so that instead of simply saying a verse that I really liked, I could share a verse that was given to me before I was born. The whole situation made those verses so much more meaningful to me.


Another thing that I learned through this whole ordeal was that doctors can be wrong. So many people think that doctors are always right, but they too are human and can make mistakes; I am living proof of that. If my mom had listened to what the first doctor told her, and decided to abort me, I would not be here today. I tend to take life for granted, but whenever I think about how easily I could have never existed, I just become so grateful for the life I have. I also go through days when I think that the world would have been a better place without me, but then I remember that that almost was the case and regret thinking about never existing. God had all of our lives written out before any of them came to be. He has amazing and perfect plans for every one of us, and we should never take our lives for granted. The Master Creator placed us here for a purpose.


After looking at the different views of abortion, and also examining what the Bible has to say, it becomes apparent that abortion truly is the wrong answer. There are so many people who want to have children but are incapable of it for some reason who would appreciate being able to adopt a baby who, for whatever reason, cannot remain with the birth parents. Everyone deserves to grow up in a family of love, and if the biological parents can’t meet this need, then let adoptive parents do it instead. Abortion should never be an option for unwanted pregnancies. No one should be allowed to intrude on God’s plan by murdering unborn babies. Everyone deserves the right to live. Therefore, abortions should not be accepted by the church because it is against God’s plan for the baby’s life. Pregnancies out of wedlock happen both inside and outside of the church, so people should be supportive and promote adoption within the church so that the girl doesn’t feel the need for an abortion to cover up her sin. Everyone sins, and abortion should be seen as much worse that getting pregnant. Everyone makes mistakes, but abortion should not be accepted as the solution. Reference List


Ganz, Richard L. ed. 178. Thou Shalt Not Kill. New Rochelle Arlington House Publishers.


Gardner, R. F. R. 17. Abortion The Personal Dilemma. Grand Rapids William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.


General Council of the United Church of Canada, 8th council. 18. Contraception and Abortion. Edmonton The United Church of Canada.


Gilbert, Jeff. 18. Abortion Perspectives. http//www.pottersschool.com/abortion.html


Gorman, Michael J. 18. Abortion & the Early Church Christian, Jewish & Pagan Attitudes in the Greco-Roman World. Downers Grove InterVarsity Press.


Hoffmeier, James K. ed. 187. Abortion A Christian Understanding and Response. Grand Rapids Baker Book House.


Kreeft, Peter. 18. The Unaborted Socrates A dramatic debate on the issues surrounding abortion. Downers Grove InterVarsity Press.


Montgomery, John Warwick. 181. Slaughter of the Innocents. Westchester Crossway Books.


New International Version Bible


Pavone, Frank A. 001. Priests For Life. http//www.priestsforlife.org/


Primm, Todd. 1. Fetal Development. http//www.sehlat.com/lifelink/data.html


Shoemaker, Donald. 176. Abortion, the Bible, and the Christian. Grand Rapids Baker Book House.


Sproul. R. C. 10. Abortion A Rational Look at an Emotional Issue. Colorado Springs Navpress.


Van Der Breggen, Hank. 188. An Enquiry Concerning Human Abortion. Burlington Crown Publications.


Please note that this sample paper on Christian Perspective on Abortion is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Christian Perspective on Abortion, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Christian Perspective on Abortion will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from livepaperhelp and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



UNDERSTANDING ART

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on UNDERSTANDING ART. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality UNDERSTANDING ART paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in UNDERSTANDING ART, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your UNDERSTANDING ART paper at affordable prices with livepaperhelp!



If we want to be able to describe the attributes of a work of art and be able to


express our reactions to it, we shall see how the elements of art, such as a line,


colors, and shape, are composed into a work of art. I will cover the three of them


representational, abstract, and nonrepresentational and having style, form, and


Help with essay on UNDERSTANDING ART




iconography. I choose this piece of art Dieric Bouts’s Mater Dolorosa, I will explain


why it is best as representational, and I will provide an analysis of its style, form, and


iconography.


First, one could also say that the representational art refers to art that represents


people or objects in something of recognizable form, those images look very


much like images in the natural world. An example of representational art, is


Leonardo Da Vinci’s Mona Lisa (150-06). Abstract art, applies to art that departs


significantly from the actual appearance of things. It may convert reality into forms


that can be appreciated for their own sake. Constantin Brancusi’s The Kiss (108),


sculpture is a good example, though abstract, it refers to realistic subject matter.


Nonrepresentational, does not represent the natural world , only shapes


and some colors, or visually textures. There is no identifiable imagery. Jackson


Pollock’s Convergence (15) is an example of nonrepresentational art.


Style, refers to the characteristic ways in which artists express themselves.


It is a function of its historical period, in other words, the time in which a work of art


was made. Form, is the way that a piece of art looks, its shape, size, material and


technique used to make the artwork. Iconography, the key to works of art, is the


study of the subject matter and symbolism of works of art, groups paintings and


sculptures in terms of their themes rather than their styles. The development of


subject matter becomes a major focus of critical study.


The Dieric Bouts’s Mater Dolorosa (Sorrowing Madonna) (1470-1475),


is a representational piece of art because it combines traditional forms expressing


medieval piety with sensitive observation of the natural world. The artist viewed the


subject as a religious and highly emotional expression. Her eyes overflowing over


with tears, she contemplates something with a tender gaze. The artist use of a simple


gold background in which the figure is placed by focusing on the head and hands of


the Madonna, illustrates a very intense feeling of love and sorrow. Her head


tilted to one side looks almost as though it is falling, giving an image of movement.


Her gesture is a very natural one. She has very little color in her cheeks, as she lacks


the same color over the rest of her body.


In conclusion without this background of information we find the painting lovely,


But how much more interesting it becomes when we understand its iconography.


It is well worth the effort to learn more about it.


Reference list.


Fichner-Rathus, L. (14). Understanding art. New Jersey Prentice Hall.


Gilbert, R. (18). Living with art. (5th ed.).New York McGraw-Hill.


Mater Dolorosa (sorrowing Madonna) by Dieric Bouts, (1470-1475)


http//www.artic.edu/aic/collection/eurptg/15pc_bouts.html





Please note that this sample paper on UNDERSTANDING ART is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on UNDERSTANDING ART, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on UNDERSTANDING ART will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from livepaperhelp and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Thursday, April 26, 2012

definition of love andrew marvell

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on definition of love andrew marvell. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality definition of love andrew marvell paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in definition of love andrew marvell, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your definition of love andrew marvell paper at affordable prices with livepaperhelp!



My love is of a birth as rare


As tis for object strange and high


It was begotten by Despair


Upon Impossibility.





Magnanimous Despair alone


Could show me so divine a thing,


Where feeble Hope could neer have flown


But vainly flapped its tinsel wing.


And yet I quickly might arrive


Where my extended soul is fixed,


But Fate does iron wedges drive,


And always crowds itself betwixt.


For Fate with jealous eye does see


Two perfect loves; nor lets them close


Their union would her ruin be,


And her tyrannic powr depose.


And therefore her decrees of steel


Us and the distant poles have placed


(Though Loves whole world on us doth wheel)


Not by themselves to be embraced.


Unless the giddy heaven fall,


And earth some new convulsion tear;


And, us to join, the world should all


Be cramped into a planishpere.


As lines so loves oblique may well


Themselves in every angle greet


But ours so truly parallel,


Though infinite can never meet.


Therefore the love which us doth bind,


But Fate so enviously debars,


Is the conjunction of the mind,


And opposition of the stars.


A man and a woman may fall in love with each other when they spend so much time together that these feelings develop and they constantly think of each other. People should be careful when looking for love from the opposite sex and what they may find is infatuation, when all they really think about is sex and the relationship becomes based on that. True love, as some people may call it, can involve sex among other physical aspects, but also must include feelings a person should have for her or his partner. This love also is one that is hard to come by and make last. Sometimes love is given and not returned or people can fall out of love. Even worse, a person might hold feelings for another person but may never share how they feel about that person and love may go undiscovered. The good thing about love, if you are strong enough to express it, is that it can last a lifetime.


There are many types of love in the world to be experienced, far too many for me to mention, even if I did know everything about love, and I doubt that any single person in the world does.





Please note that this sample paper on definition of love andrew marvell is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on definition of love andrew marvell, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on definition of love andrew marvell will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from livepaperhelp and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



“The changing role of portraiture in the course of art history”

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on “The changing role of portraiture in the course of art history”. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality “The changing role of portraiture in the course of art history” paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in “The changing role of portraiture in the course of art history”, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your “The changing role of portraiture in the course of art history” paper at affordable prices with livepaperhelp!



The role of portraiture in art has developed over time, no longer is it only a means of recording daily occurrences, it has become an indicator of the changing world.


Many mediums such as sculpture, photography and paint and styles for example surrealism, realism, and impressionism have been used to create portraits, from the beginning of prehistoric times when portraiture was used to record happenings in day to day life. Through out ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome it was used to show people of importance as well as cultural and religious icons. During the middle ages when it was used mainly to show religious icons an scenes of battle and through the 17th, 18th, 1th, 0th and 1st centuries it developed into something not just created for the gods and societies elite, but a medium used to both capture images and express feelings brought about by poverty, war, and the lives and appearances of people in all classes and cultures anywhere in the world.


The Athenian sculptor Phidias, born in Athens in 40b.c, who directed the building of the Parthenon is perhaps best know for his statues of Zeus the king of the gods and Athena goddess of wisdom, which not only represent highly important figures in Greek mythology but also represent art and architecture in Greece during Phidias’ life as well as his role in society. Which was to provide the people of Greece with religious icons to dedicate and worship.


The statue of the Athena goddess of wisdom, protector of Athens and daughter of Zeus, which Phidias made for the Parthenon, was completed in approximately 48 BC. The original work, which no longer exists, was made of gold and ivory and measured about 1m in height. The goddess stood upright, wearing a tunic, aegis, and helmet and holding a Nike (goddess of victory) in her extended right hand and a spear in her left. A decorated shield and a serpent were by her side, all of these symbolising her position and importance in Greek religion and culture.


Cheap University Papers on “The changing role of portraiture in the course of art history”




The other sculpture for which Phidias is best known is his statue of Zeus, the chief deity of the Greeks, was completed about 40bc, for the Temple of Zeus at Olympia; this statue is now considered to be one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It features Zeus seated on a throne, holding a Nike in his right hand and a scepter in his left, both objects which symbolise his power and status as a dispenser of justice as well as a protector. His flesh was created from ivory and his robes of gold. The throne back rose above his head. Everything surrounding the figure was richly decorated. The Olympian Zeus was about 1m and occupied the full height of the temple.


August Sander a German photographer used film in an attempt to not only capture an image of a person but to take photographs with the intention of documenting the entire German people in his time, a time which included WW and the nazi occupation of Germany.


The photograph Arbeitsloser was taken in Koln in 18, it features a man standing on a street corner. He is the central focus of this work. The background of this black and white photograph is the unfocused street to the mans right and the building in front of which he is standing. The mans clothing and all together appearance show him to be of the lesser social class. This image shows just a small part of what life was like for some people in this period of time.


Another of Sanders photographs “Zirusleute” taken in 16 also in Koln, represents a group of circus performers gathered in front of their caravans, people of different backgrounds as well as different races. It shows not only the hairstyles and costumes of the time, but how these people lived.


Both of these images show Sanders’ role, which was to lead the viewer through the successive layers of German society as well as revealing the role that his subjects played in their society.


The most common form of portraiture is painting- Rene Magritte a surrealist artist whose work dates from 118 until 168, painted many wonderful and macabre artworks, some of which were portraits. His portraits provide the audience with an insight into the artists’ mind and subject us to his emotions.


“ The Musings of a Solitary Walker” which Magritte painted in 16, depicts a ghostly white body, floating behind a bowler hatted man who is standing with his back to the viewer beside a river. This portrait is by no means a traditional portrait. The use of dark colours in the work and the appearance of fog over the river gives a sense of morbidity and darkness. This combined with the appearance of the ghostly figure could be attributed to feelings and dreams associated with his mothers drowning suicide, when he was a young boy. In this work the first thing the viewer sees is the striking white figure, but then as they look further into the picture you notice a bridge over the river and the suggestion of trees in the background.


Magrittes‘ painting “ The Pleasure Principle (Portrait of Edward James)”, painted in 17, was based on a photograph taken by artist Man Ray. It features a man sitting behind a table, which is bare except for a stone, and in all aspects of colour, shape, texture, figurative proportion and overall appearance is completely realistic. From the mans brown suit, to the grain of the timber and the gray of the stone. Except for where Magritte has substituted the explosion of light produced by a camera flash, for the face of his model, thereby showing Magrittes mocking and demonstration of the principle of reality lying behind the picture.


Magrittes art not only provided him with an outlet for his feelings and subconscious thought but as means with which to make people analyse and explore both his artworks and themselves.


Through out the course of art history portraiture has taken of many forms and has been used for many reasons to record, to express, and to confront only being a few. It is an art form which if found in every culture and can allow both the artist and the audience express themselves and to give insight into feelings and emotions as well as different periods in time.





Please note that this sample paper on “The changing role of portraiture in the course of art history” is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on “The changing role of portraiture in the course of art history”, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on “The changing role of portraiture in the course of art history” will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from livepaperhelp and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Wednesday, April 25, 2012

McCormick Duo

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on McCormick Duo. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality McCormick Duo paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in McCormick Duo, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your McCormick Duo paper at affordable prices with livepaperhelp!



On Monday September 8, 00 at 800, I had the opportunity to attend “The McCormick Duo” held at the University of South Florida in the building FAH 101. This concert was the first concert held this year by the School of Music. As I walked into the building I could tell that all the attendees were mostly people who had attended these concerts often because, of their conversations about past concerts. I didn’t see many faces from my music class but, I did see students from other classes such as University Experience.


The recital consisted of only three performers. A flutist (Kim McCormick), percussionist (Robert McCormick), and a female soloist (Kay Lowe). The recital consisted of thirteen pieces in which three of the pieces included the soloist.


The piece that I am going to discuss is the piece that was the main piece of the night, it was the premiere performance and the name of the piece is called ‘Between’ by Daniel Adams (I have attached the program for you to view). This piece ‘Between’ is the eighth piece in the concert performed right before intermission. ‘Between’ was written in 00 especially for Kim and Robert McCormick. This piece started out with the flute playing very soft and relaxed, at times it sounded like she was running up a scale. Then the percussionist comes in beating the snare and what sounds to me like the tenor drum. Throughout this piece there is a continuous back and forth of the rhythm as to if they were fighting each other. Even though it sounded like the two instruments were fighting with each other it still flowed well. In this piece you could tell that there were some sharp keys being played because, there were places in the song in which you just herd something totally different. The dynamics of the piece were continuously changing. In the sections were the percussionist was playing you could distinctly hear the change in dynamics. As the piece started to culminate the tempo definitely started to speed up and the dynamic level rose greatly. Both instruments played in the highest register of their instruments. They then began to alternate transpositions but, they ended together.


At first when I entered the building and received my program and I read it I then realized that the concert consisted of only percussion, flute, and a soprano voice I was disappointed. I have never been to a concert with such a little variety of instruments, therefore, I was expecting for it to be boring. As the concert started and they got thru the first piece I was very surprised at what I had just heard. I was excited from then on out to see what the rest of the concert would b like especially ‘Between’ because, it was going to be their premier performance of the piece. The piece ’Between’ had received a very well round of applause. I enjoyed myself at the concert and was very surprised because it was not what I expected for it to be. I am looking forward to go to a part two of this concert if they were to have another one. WORD COUNT 544


Cheap Custom Essays on McCormick Duo







Please note that this sample paper on McCormick Duo is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on McCormick Duo, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on McCormick Duo will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from livepaperhelp and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Black Beauty

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Black Beauty. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Black Beauty paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in Black Beauty, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your Black Beauty paper at affordable prices with livepaperhelp!



A story about a horse that learns about horses and humans life growing up. He has many things happen and as he goes from owner to owner he learns different lesson. He meets new friends like ginger and and the general. He learned why humans chase rabits which is called hunting. One day a banr cuaght on fire and it was bad. Black Bueaty is a great timeless book about a horse. It is black. It is a beauty. It is awesome. It runs fast. THis book was sad. He grew up being a loyal and lovin horse. It never bit or kicked, for he followed his mother addvice. WHen he was four the Squire came to brake him in. He didnt like the feel of the bite or saddle, but he knew his matster would not harm him so he did as told. His first coachman was Joah Manly he had a wife and kids. One day a fire broke out in the stable. It was bad. lkjadf lakdjf ad asdfasdf lajksdf ;kja sdf lkjasdf a ;kjdf ;lkjsdf ;lkjasdf i jd falkdjf ie lkjasdf i akjsd fe l;kajs kajsdf knl adfkjin alasdfjli asdfnl asidfn ;asdf in adfi a dnasin ons lisaf on asdkfj i on the lkj dfionsrgh aljdf inasef doif nthinsf osdingi this thei lskdf jtheouk id kleid mipo en asoij flkej ;dsif jke flasidfjkef sdifjklefj isd fklej isdfjlkef asdfi je flfjief asdklfjie jfsdi fjesio fjsdk lfjiefjasld;fik jsioe s fjselkfj sdifjel; kjas;dlifje a;lsid ekjm


Please note that this sample paper on Black Beauty is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Black Beauty, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Black Beauty will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from livepaperhelp and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Tuesday, April 24, 2012

Differences

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Differences. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Differences paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in Differences, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your Differences paper at affordable prices with livepaperhelp!



Differences


• Why are there differences?


• Culture


• Vocabulary


Write my Essay on Differences for me




• Idiom � oblique sayings


• Grammar


• Usage


• Spelling


• Punctuation & Symbols


• Geography


• Time (extinct � obsolete � archaic � current)


• Jargon


• Swear Words


• Rhyming Slang, Cockney Rhyming Slang, and Backslang


• Translations


• A Spot of Linguistics


• Obligatory Humour


When an American and a British person meet, the first obvious difference is the accent � the pronunciation of words. The next obvious difference is vocabulary � the occasional different word for something, like a foreign language. However, more subtle differences become apparent in syntax (or grammar) � the arrangement of certain words, the position of certain words, or the inclusion or lack of certain words. Not only are these differences reflected in writing, but writing also brings out differences in spelling and punctuation. All these taken together form distinctive American or British English.


To confound the issue, these kinds of differences show up in different regions of the same country. Either way, compared to the main body of English these differences are really quite small. We can read each others newspapers without too much trouble; only a little of a Monty Python show is lost on an American audience; and the British stomach American soaps and comedies with virtually as much understanding as Americans.


These reflect two of the ways language can be looked at. In the first case, the function of language is to communicate, and this is accomplished by sounds, gestures and symbols. The way the sounds are pronounced create the accent, and the symbols are our writing system, which then invokes spelling and punctuation.


In the second case, the components of language are words, and their arrangement. The words are our vocabulary, which includes idiom, and their arrangement is syntax or grammar.


So now we know where differences can be found, and we find that differences do occur in each of these language facets. These are examined more closely in the following pages.


Why are there differences ?


Language can also be looked at in a third way, as a process. Steven Pinker draws parallels from evolutionary biology to show that language is subject to three processes which, acting over long periods of time, cause changes. These factors of language change are inheritance, innovation, and isolation. Language as an evolving process is readily apparent when considering how English has changed from Anglo-Saxon to Chaucer to Shakespeare to the present day. It is the effect of these processes over the last 400 years that gave rise to the differences between American and British.


Inheritance � we acquire our language from the society we grow up in, American in America and British in Britain. We don’t speak identically to our parents because these particular two cultures are so dynamic. Also, we are affected by exposure to other languages, more as time passes. To give just one example � the Spanish idiom ¡hasta la vista! (/asta/) is so common on the US west coast that it has entered colloquial usage as an idiom, ‘hasta la vista, baby!’, spawning humorous forms, ‘hasta la bye-bye’, but more often just ‘hasta!’. English is rife with borrowings, which you’ll see in the Brief History of English.


We dont just borrow words; on occasion, English has pursued other languages down alleyways to beat them unconscious and rifle their pockets for new vocabulary.


�Booker T. Washington (1856-115)


The problem with defending the purity of the English language is that English is about as pure as a cribhouse whore. We don’t just borrow words; on occasion, English has pursued other languages down alleyways to beat them unconscious and rifle their pockets for new vocabulary.


�James D. Nicoll


English doesnt borrow from other languages - English follows other languages down dark alleys, knocks them over and goes through their pockets for loose grammar.


�Author unknown


Innovation � New activities, which by their nature give rise to new terms, will bring change to the language, especially to those directly involved (see jargon below), and in some cases, for instance technology, this exponentially affects the rest of the population. The verb morph, which comes from the computer operation, isn’t in any of my regular dictionaries (1), but is a regular in the press (‘Schwarzenegger morphs from bodybuilder to actor’). Younger people experiment more with language, providing slang and jargon, alternative or modified pronunciation, deviant spellings, idiom and expressions, some of which eventually become part of the language. Any social, ethnic, or common interest group, not only develops a particular jargon but also a culture, which becomes more defined over time, and culture holds language change.


Isolation � dialectologists have noticed that some dialects are separated by geographical features that naturally separate peoples, such as hills, rivers, or bogs (which of course extends to mountains, seas, and deserts). So a dialect arises when a group is isolated long enough. Manx, Cornish, and Welsh all started as the same language, but after 1000 years of separation became different languages. And so even though there has always been good communication between America and Britain, via travel, letters, and books, and now radio, movies, TV, phone, fax, email, and most recently the Web, differences have arisen over 400 years. Australian and New Zealand English, which had developed over the last 00 years are also different dialects from British, but not as much as American from British. Social barriers also act to create or maintain separation of groups, and this strengthens language differences, more apparent in the British social classes than American.


Robust communication systems have built-in latency, which in the case of language is known as language redundancy. English is apparently two to four times larger than it needs to be to communicate, which not only allows things to be said or written in myriad different ways, but also allows pieces to be left out. (Consider the British ad - ‘f u cn rd ths u cd gt a gd jb’. See also Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at an Elingsh uinervtisy) These kinds of innovations develop differently in different regions. In the Midwest, for example, you can hear expressions like “The car needs washed” and “These videos need returned”, the ‘to be’ being found redundant. There are more such examples in Grammar below.


Culture


American and British culture are fundamentally different, based on their history, economics, environment, outlook, and probably anything else you’d care to chew on. Indeed within each country there are strong cultural areas � America’s east and west coast, or the South, England’s London and the south-east, or the Midlands and the North. As in the language, there are many similarities, but a closer look in virtually any quarter reveals differences. No attempt is made to list these differences. Perhaps a glance at some stereotypes might be revealing enough.


British stereotypes of Americans Americans are illiterate, have no culture, are immodest and gauche, have a throw away culture (e.g. automobiles) and everything has a price. Churchill called Americans a nation of shopkeepers [Napoleon said the same of the English, Langleterre est une nation de boutiquiers]. When Clive James visited California in the late 170s, he reported that restaurants look like car washes, car washes look like art galleries, art galleries look like war memorials, war memorials look like fire stations, fire stations look like churches, and churches look like restaurants.


Americans stereotypes of themselves think they are culture free (symptom culture vultures, no Usenet newsgroup soc.culture.american), think other countries don’t like them, think they are the world (world series, international news virtually absent from major news broadcasts and newspapers unless American interests are involved), and are born to shop (for trinkets to show off to each other).


Americans are patriotic, direct and open in conversation, globally naïve, experts at marketing (a studied art …available at finer stores… …coming to a theater near you… …remember, folks, you heard it here first… featured naked woman [imagine your favorite model here] not included, United States of Advertising�Paul Krassner), welcome you into their stores, have more shopping malls, and don’t have a class structure.


See also Zompists How to tell if youre American?


American stereotypes of the British bad lovers, terrible cooks (food is boiled to within an inch of its flavour, and then some), snotty, pompous, insular, cold, regimented (traditional), do things in their own fashion, make the best ‘bad guys’ in movies, and speak English correctly. One American at an English college complained, ‘The English girls never got my jokes, the brussels sprouts were gray, the drizzle was relentless, and the toilet paper was waxy’.


British stereotypes of themselves none.


The British despise their own country, pity anyone not British, despise foreigners, talk to themselves (but only after years of acquaintance�Punch Magazine), invented the phrase ‘burnt to a turn’, have a class structure (upper middle class, middle class, and lower middle class), and look upon you as you enter their shops as a trespasser. ‘The Parliamentarian, Liberal democratic, plutocratic British’�Louis de Bernières.


See also Zompists How to tell if youre English? or Scottish?


That previous paragraph about British stereotypes of themselves bothers most people. It is a joke. Here’s a clue


The Scots keep the Sabbath, and anything else they can get their hands on.


The Welsh pray on their knees, and on their neighbours.


The Irish dont know what they want, but will fight to the death for it.


Whereas the English consider themselves a race of self-made men, thereby absolving the almighty of that awesome responsibility.


Vocabulary


At the basic level, there is a different vocabulary, just like a foreign language. For example, biro and spanner are strictly British terms, whereas zip code and Realtor are strictly American terms. Railroad tieand railway sleeper are different words used in different ways (around the common word rail) to name precisely the same thing. The bowler hat in Britain is a derby hat in the US. However, unlike a foreign language, these two dialects converge, as the following chart suggests, or perhaps we should say they diverge.





Words are completely different at one extreme (to the left in the chart) but converge until they are identical at the other extreme (right). There is also the obvious/obscure aspect; sometimes two different words are used but their meaning is quite apparent (luggage, baggage) (at top), and they may often be used interchangeably. In other cases words may be quite obscure (bottom).


Were it so simple. Sometimes a common word may have additional meanings unique to one country. For instance, in Britain a leader also means an editorial or the leading article in a newspaper. Sometimes the additional meaning becomes the primary meaning, like dumb in the US primarily meaning used of a stupid person, not a mute. In the case of table, the secondary meanings are opposite! Rude has many shades of meaning, but in the US is often used to mean discourteous, especially when abrupt. Although it has all these meaning in the UK, it has the additional meaning of lewd or indecent, which is how it is usually used.


Some words are used with differing frequency. Baggage and luggage, or pole and rod, are interchangeable and are used with only slightly differing frequencies, but if you’re used to hearing one (fishing rod in the UK), hearing the other will nudge your attention (fishing pole in the US). Words like these, where there is a tendency to use certain words over others, add a subtle flavour to the varieties of English. At the other extreme, some words common in one place are rare in the other. I’ve never heard soppy or row in America, even though they’re listed in American dictionaries just like any other word, but they’re quite well known in the UK. Upon encountering ‘… as computers obsolesce …’ one might think it’s the American easy-goingness to create forms to fit, but Webster’s dictionary has this word as used since 187.


There are any number of words that have one meaning in the US and another in the UK. Look uprubber, braces, jumper, and jelly in both sections. These are the kinds of words that cause much confusion, especially when there is a circularity that doesn’t seem to end garters are suspenders, but suspenders are braces, but braces are orthodontal devices to straighten teeth; a tramp is a bum, but a bum is a fanny, but a fanny is a twat, but a twat is a twit!


Why are there vocabulary differences? Some words retained in Britain were dropped from American, such as fortnight and constable, and many no longer used in Britain are retained in American I guess, gotten, mad (angry), fall (autumn), sick (ill), platter (large plate), assignment (job or task), deck of cards (pack of cards), slim (as in slim chance), mean (unpleasant rather than stingy), trash, hog (pig), brunch, chore, skillet, quit (resign), sheriff. Brunch originated as Oxford slang in the late 1th century, and became popular in the US in the 10s, then made its way back slowly, being considered slang, then informal, until quite recently.


Americans seem freer to use the language to express themselves rather than being constrained by it. For instance, Americans tend more to coin and use


• nouns compounded from verbs plus prepositions (fallout, blowout, workout, cookout, know-how, the run-around, the rundown, a stop-over, a try-out),


• verbed nouns (to author, to vacation, ink-jetted, surveilling, nouned, verbed, -ize words (fetishize), which are often -ise words in Britain, see the spelling list, table ),


• verbed adjectives (more -ize words. I remember Fleet Street wincing at ugly Americanisms in the 160s � why finalize, what’s wrong with simply making it final?),


• and the reverse (painterly),


• nouned verbs (an assist, big push),


• nouned adjectives (briefs, hopefuls, special = a sale),


• novel superlatives (winningest).


Also true of irregular verbs � dove (he dove off the cliff) and snuck (and then snuck off) are well known, and I’ve even heard fluck (who fluck shit?), but even Americans caution us to watch out for irregular verbs which have crope into our language, perhaps because otherwise good words might get squozen out.


Other reasons for differences are mentioned elsewhere, such as different culture, environment, experiences giving rise to different names for things (twisters most frequently occur in the US). Borrowings occur from exposure to different ethnic groups throughout history, and new technologies generate distinct jargons.


Idiom � oblique sayings


Idiom is a phrase that captures a unique concept. It is like adding vocabulary to the language. I get the impression that idiom forms because words take on too many meanings, and idiom captures a single concept. (The last time I looked, the word with the highest number of separate meanings in the OED was set with 4. (err... update. I just read that set has 158 meanings as a verb, 58 as a noun and 10 as a participial adjective.)) The problem is that there is no logical connection to the words it is composed of (e.g. kick the bucket). The pervasiveness of idiom is apparent from it comprising a large part of ESL classes for foreigners learning conversational English.


Although America and Britain share many idioms, many are obtuse from one to the other. Go figure. The Fourth of July is celebrated on July 4th. Bob’s your Uncle!


Grammar


Some grammar differences are consistent between American and British


US UK


write her write to her


he seems to be an intelligent man he seems an intelligent man


lets go see a movie lets go and see a movie


look out the window look out of the window


talk with, meet with talk to, meet


I [already] ate I have [already] eaten


different than, different from different from, different to


I do, I don’t I have, I haven’t (In answer to, do you have?)


the house needs painting the house wants painting


Hudson River, Mississippi River River Thames, River Avon


came over came round


to be on a team to be in a team


to live on a street to live in a street


to be in a sale to be on sale


I went Ive gone


Some usages are peculiar to the country. In back of, meaning behind, is only used in the US, and is not known or even generally understood in the UK. ‘To visit with’ is used in the US, instead of ‘to visit’, and has the additional meaning of a virtual meeting, as in visiting with someone on the phone. In the UK ‘is John at home’ means is he physically there, whereas ‘is John home?’ means has he returned yet. In the US there is no such distinction, and only the latter is used. In the UK the usage of ‘one’ is rarely used in the US; one does what one ought. And then there’s the classic American � two kids I do not! you do, too! do not! do, too! …


There is always a debate about the British being in hospital or going to university whereas Americans are in the hospital or going to a university (or going to school). In the US ‘ten of six’ and ‘ten after six’ mean ten minutes to six and ten past six, and in the UK ‘half nine’ means half past nine. In the US the ‘and’ is often dropped from numbers, as a hundred (and) three or two thousand (and) forty six, and even sometimes 001 (two thousand one) A Space Odyssey. In particular cases the ‘and’ is used to indicate the decimal point one hundred fifty one (151), one hundred and fifty one (100.51). Americans will as often ask ‘have you got’ where the British might say ‘do you have’. Americans do it over but the British do it again.


Some differences are less noticeable because they are interchangeable, but there still is a differing frequency. For instance, Americans part their hair and Britons have a parting, but sometimes it’s the other way around. American is different than British in America, but in Britain, American is different from British, and sometimes different to British.


And then there are endless usages that, although quite obvious, are used only in one variety of English. For instance, Americans might say ‘I sure could use a drink’ or ‘I need to use the bathroom’. The British would say these in any number of different ways (‘I really need a drink’, but more likely, ‘I’m dying of thirst’, and ‘I’m dying to go to the loo’). Some ways of saying things may be unique to the country but only used by a minority, such as ‘my dog wants out’ in the US, or ‘my bank are awful’ in the UK.


Perhaps American sounds sloppy to British ears because more variation is allowed, as in new coinages noted above. American often has the adverb before the verb (to boldly go) though both arrangements are found (‘they never will agree’ and ‘they will never agree’, only the latter is allowed in the UK). Perhaps British sounds authoritative because some standard usages (ought) are only encountered in formal US situations, such as legalese.


Grammar considers both syntax � the arrangement of words in a sentence, and morphology � the way a word is built up from pieces. All of the above are examples of differences in syntax. Many of the different word forms result simply in spelling differences (like spelled and spelt) and these can be found in the spelling list, Table . Still, many different forms are used. Americans might say shave cream, swim suit, scrub brush, drive test, and cook book rather than shaving cream, swimming costume, scrubbing brush, driving test, and cookery book, and differing informal contractions mean that Americans study math whereas the British study maths. But why do Americans burglarize instead of burgle, obligate instead of oblige, or are complected rather than complexioned?


These kinds of differences are true of regions both in the US and in the UK. For instance, New Yorkers say standing on line instead of standing in line, and some folks in Northern England use mustn’t instead of can’t, and say ‘he gave it me’ (he gave it to me). Some Americans use present tense instead of past tense in some irregular verbs (He spit on the sidewalk). Regionalisms sometimes spread. In Ireland they say ten till two, as some do in the US and this is not uncommon in Britain. The well known Southern ‘y’all’ (you all) is now heard in informal usage anywhere in the US. See also the notes under Geography, below.


See Trudgill and Hannah 14 for a systematic treatment of grammatical differences.


Usage


Usage is our speech and writing habits. It therefore includes words and idiom, spelling and punctuation, accent, and grammar � pretty much all the pieces of language. The essence of language is that meaning is conveyed by words and phrases. A meaning may be expressed in many ways, or conversely, a number of concepts may be encapsulated in one phrase, but more commonly a cluster of meanings will be expressed by lots of synonymous words and phrases. In the first case, a community will tend to settle on a particular way of expressing an idea or concept, but of course each community (or country) will, over time, gravitate towards a different one, the shifts occurring due to the innovation and isolation processes discussed earlier.


My canonical example from vocabulary is wrench and spanner, but more well known is the hood, trunk and boot, bonnet distinction.


The fun begins at the other end of the spectrum where different ideas or concepts are expressed by one word or phrase. Meanings are easily misconstrued where they are different or even opposite, in words and phrases like knock up, quite, table, and what’s up.


So, one idea can be expressed in many ways, and, as already mentioned, a number of meanings may be expressed by the same word or phrase. But more commonly, different nuances or senses of something are expressed by the same word or phrase. Confused in the US more often means mixed-up, whereas confused in Britain more often means disconcerted. And we had already mentioned how rude in Britain has the additional meaning of lewd.


Again � the flip side � one idea could be described by more subtle shifts in grammar or word choice. Americans smash a bug, the British crush an insect, but Americans sometimes crush a cigarette butt. Regular and normal, and tan and beige are virtually interchangeable but are the regular usage of the respective countries.


Which brings us to the finest points where a number of closely related meanings are handled by some words or phrases, but across the pond the same meanings and words are matched up differently. For instance a sick American feels ill but an ill Briton feels sick. (However, these words have other related meanings, such as get sick in the US, meaning to vomit). Similarly small pebbles are called rocks in America and stones in Britain. A stone can be used in America but generally isn’t; a rock in Britain brings to mind something larger, like a boulder. These are the sorts of differences between American and British are so subtle that, even though we can understand them, they still somehow don’t sound quite right.


In the dictionary ‘usage’ is sometimes used to qualify a definition, and it indicates these kinds of hard to classify differences. It also indicates the notion of frequency. A word may be used often in one country and infrequently in the other, and even be familiar in both, such as caveat and kudos in the US and decrepit and grub in the UK.


Some differences are rarely used but are obvious, if quaint to the ear, such as gotten and auto in the US, and ‘shall’ and especially ‘shan’t’ in the UK. Ought is used much more in the UK (you oughtn’t to have said that). The differentiation between may and can is virtually absent in the US, and found less and less in the UK.


Clearly, language is complex, but the differences highlighted between two languages as close as American and British might be less obvious in two foreign languages.


The chart is another look at usage differences. It plots word or phrase pairs from distinct on the left to interchangeable or indistinguishable on the right. Pairs whose differences are obvious are towards the top, and those whose differences are obscure are towards the bottom.


It is interesting to see that morphology pairs are in the upper left, slight shifts in meaning are in the upper right, and meaning differences are in the lower left.





Spelling


Sometimes words are identical in meaning but spelt differently, as in sulfur and sulphur, hemoglobin and haemoglobin (and other oe and ae words). Most words (stolen from the French) in Britain ending in -our end in -or in the US (colour, humour, and words like favourite); most words in Britain ending in -tre (centre, fibre, theatre) end in -ter in the US. Many of these kinds of changes were passionately extolled by Noah Webster (of the dictionary fame) 00 years ago. The US has a greater tendency to drop silent consonants and vowels, and move to a more phonetic spelling, especially where the old spelling was a French remnant (tyre ͖ tire). This often starts informally (night ͖ nite, light ͖ lite) but eventually becomes mainstream (through ͖ thru, dough-nought ͖ doughnut ͖ donut). The reverse is also true, such as the computer byte, but it is interesting to note that some coinages flounder, such as the politically correct fad, women ͖ wimmin, wimyn, womon, and womyn.


In the US many nouns and adjectives are verbed by adding -ize (standardize). These same words usually end in -ise in Britain, despite the British dictionaries which show -ize as the main form with -ise as an alternative. Sometimes, even American holds a surprize. Makes you realise!


One consistency is the American -yze words (analyze) are all -yse in Britain.


The table of spelling differences, table , lists over 450 differently spelled words, grouped into categories (such as the -ize/-ise words, above). Many of the categories are relatively complete, though many may be uncompletable, such as comparing words that are hyphenated (ultrahigh/ultra-high) or spaced (lemongrass/lemon grass) or both (flower-girl/flower girl).


Punctuation & Symbols


• quotes (quotation marks, inverted commas)


In general, Americans put the trailing period or comma of quoted material inside the quotes(Did you say, “I shot the cat.”), the British put it outside (Did you say, ‘I shot the cat’.). Americans exclude colons and semicolons, but include question marks, exclamation marks, and dashes, if they are part of the quote.


• nested quotes


Americans use double quotes, but single quotes for nested quotes, and double again for further nesting.


In 167, Michigan governor George Romney clarified, “I didnt say, ‘I didnt say it.’ I said, ‘I didnt say, “I said it.”’”


The British generally recommend the opposite, and that is what’s often seen.


• abbreviations


Americans indicate abbreviations with a period (Mr. Mrs. Dr. Ph.D.) but the British have promulgated the guideline that abbreviations ending in the same letter as the full form drop the full point (Mr Mrs Dr St vols) but otherwise leave it (abbr. vol. Ph.D). However, today’s British usage, which seems to have been driven by erring on the side of dropping, almost exhorts ever sparser use (eg ie BSc PhD).


The British abbreviation situation seems to have begun in the 160s as a reaction to overpunctuation (U.S.A. B.B.C). This serves as an excellent example of a linguistic trend that in half a century has swung almost a full cycle.


• dashes


Both use long dashes as strong commas or to indicate a sudden shift (eg, anacoluthon), but they are surrounded by spaces in Britain.


Make up your � never mind.


• time


Americans use a colon in time designations (60 p.m.) but the British tend to use a point (6.0pm).


There are actually few punctuation differences, but they go a long way. Everything else is basically the same, but there are many subtle differences. Perhaps Americans tend to use commas more grammatically whereas the British more to indicate pauses. Note in the time example above how the space disappeared. But these subtle differences are no greater than what you’d find between different magazine or newspaper styles in the same country, or between, say, newsletters and scholarly journals.


Major publishers are putting their style guides online, which makes fascinating comparative reading (for word nerds). Two extremes might be Wired’s style guide and MHRA’s (Modern Humanities Research Association). This latter, in addition to using founts, has some rare punctuation examples.


Why does Shakespeare give Malcolm the banal question ‘Oh, by whom?’?


I have taken the liberty of punctuating this dictionary according to my whims, following standard British generally, but adopting American convention where it suits me � the former is especially true in my usage of quote marks (which should also please computer types, as I use them like delimiters).


Punctuation is sort of an afterthought in writing. Everyone knows we have twenty-six letters of the alphabet, but ask someone how many punctuation marks we have and you’ll get a sort of perplexed indignant look. Most folks know (‘“-;�,!.?”’…) parentheses, quotation marks (single and double), colon, hyphen, semicolon, dash, comma, exclamation mark (my daughter called it the exciting mark), period or full stop, question mark, apostrophe, and ellipsis. Symbols are an arcana, and we use an astounding array of them


• [] brackets, {} curly braces, �� angle brackets, / slashes (virgules), and � & � the em and en dash (because they’re the same width as an M and an N),


• diacritic marks (àáâãäå9=.ǻạ̐…), [Paul Erds]


• ideograms (01…), and


• logograms ($¢͘ˆ@#%^&…), not to mention all those strange symbols used in


• documentation (•••C�§®̒…),


• science and mathematics (∫∂+-×÷∩ͦͪ≡ͧ<º…),


• computerese (8ɁȾɄ7ɩɪ=), and even


• linguistics (əɘ<ʒ68Aɜʔ…).


Ancient Egyptians would be challenged. The table of available symbols that comes with any modern word-processor looks like a sheet of inscrutable hieroglyphs, without even squinting. As with the subtler details of punctuation, variation in symbol is more at the level of the groups of users than nations.


Just for fun, here’s a few snippets and factoids on some (now) common symbols.


Ray Tomlinson, the inventor of email in 171, used the @ symbol to construct email addresses primarily because it was an available symbol not found in anyone’s name. Prior to that launch into the limelight, it was a little-used symbol outside of accounting and commercial price lists. Recently, the earliest instance of this symbol was found on a 4 May 156 Italian document, where it represented an amphora � a measure (of wine), and its continued use in that sense eventually gave rise to its meaning of ‘at the price of’.


Also in the 16th century, the Oxford mathematician Robert Recorde introduced the equal = sign (“bicause noe thynges can be moare equalle”), and popularised the plus + and minus � signs.


There be other signes in often use of which the first is made thus + and betokeneth more the other is made thus � and betokeneth lesse.


(Latter from A Brief History of Algebra and Computing An Eclectic Oxonian View, Jonathan P. Bowen, Oxford university Computing Laboratory, 14.)


Geography


As mentioned elsewhere, both countries have many pronounced regions, which give rise to local differences, and these further confound the national differences. The regions can be states, counties, cities or small locales. Consider the Bronx, Texas, California, Minnesota /minsohda/, or London, Liverpool, Newcastle /nookasl/, and Glasgow /glzge/.


A word may be used heavily in a discreet location and not be typical nationally. For instance a word may be in general use only on the US west coast. This is a particular problem if also used in a very different sense on the east coast, and again differently in various parts of Britain.


Many words came to Britain from the colonies, often starting out as army usage (dekko, bint). The brief history of English, in a following section, sheds some more light on effects on the language by invasions, migrations and so on.


And America and Britain affect each other. Numerous American words are English stranded in the US by settlers and since dropped in England fall (Autumn), gotten, flat as (/bath/ /bahth/), unrounded os (/not/, /naht/), ate (/ayt/ /et/), mad (angry), I guess. Some words bounce back and forth (brunch ), and slang and jargon that arises from new pursuits continues to seep both ways, aided these days by greatly increased communication and connectivity.


Time (extinct � obsolete � archaic � current)


Many archaic words are still used, but usually in a semi-humorous and informal way, the humour often due to the ancientness of the word (e.g. bully, cad, spiffing). Some words sound affected or obsolete when used in other areas. Other words are no longer used but are enshrined in literature and films. Some words are revived or exhumed with new meaning (radical, rad, heinous, brilliant), and the usage may stay or quietly disappear.


Some obsolete terms will continue to be used (to the bafflement of the listener) by folks who at one time used them regularly. For instance, unless something drastic happens, I will always weigh eleven stone something (rather than 160 odd pounds or 70 some kilos), and if someone gives me their height in centimetres I’ll compare it with 18 cm. to see if they are taller or shorter than six feet before it makes intrinsic sense.


Look at the list of groovy American words from the 170s, under wow, check off those that you still use, and compare with how many are dated. A word may be in vogue briefly or for topical reasons and then disappear.


Jargon


Every industry quickly generates jargon as an expedience. Since the practices are so distinct (standards, equipment, regulations, methods, and terminology), so is the language. But the same industry developing in relative isolation has developed distinct jargons.


For example, the leccy (electric) systems use different voltages (10V, 40V), different color codes for the wires (including the earth wire or ground), different shaped plugs and outlets, sockets, or points, different regulations for installation, and so on. More familiar differences are known for the auto industry and the car itself (trunk & hood, boot & bonnet, etc.).


The computer revolution is a whole nother story. ‘Big’ publishers (Oxford and such) published their first computer dictionaries in the early 180s, but technical publishers were putting them out a decade before that. The online Jargon File gestated around that time, and eventually became The Hacker’s Dictionary and now The New Hacker’s Dictionary. The point is that this dynamic and discrete body of computer jargon is so new that the most of the lingo was coined by people still living, and it is not only eminently studyable but computers themselves are used to study it.


The Jargon File began in the States but the latest version has many entries of ‘Commonwealth hackish’, the only samples in this dictionary being to note the nuances of kluge and kludge. Perhaps I should include email, since my Webster’s lists E-mail and my College Oxford lists email (also e-mail). And this is exactly the point. In 15, Jeff Adams, a scientist from Kurzweil, posted an article about different ways that email is spelt. He examined a 40-million word corpus of online articles, and found that of the over 85 ways people were spelling it, email 4% was followed closely by e-mail 7%, and then E-mail 1% and Email 10% led the remainder, on down through many obvious typos (and hyphenation was about 50/50). In other words, a jargon very much in flux.


Swear Words


Exclusion principle Although jargon and slang evolve to create words for new ideas, they also serve to exclude any outsider of the particular group, which seems truer as the words become more obscene.


Words have levels of obscenity, crudeness, and strength. So, starting from the formal or ‘proper’ use of a word there is a kind of scale


• synonyms (words of overlapping scope in meaning or sense),


• vernacular (dialect and common speech),


• colloquial (informal conversation),


• informal (words for some reason not used in a formal setting),


• improper (words used in a relaxed manner without regard to grammar),


• slang (words used in any manner regardless of prior rules, and often creatively (park the leopard � to throw up) embodying a novel concept, but with a definite consensus meaning), and


• vulgar (offensive, crude, derogatory, and by implication bigoted (race, color, religion � all the usual stuff) or taboo).


The bottom of the scale is usually censored by somebody, such as the FCC list of censored words, in order shit, piss, fuck, cunt, cocksucker, motherfucker, tits.


Rhyming Slang, Cockney Rhyming Slang, and Backslang


Slang has no country, it owns the world¼ It is the voice of the god that dwells in the people


�Ralcy Husted Bell, The Mystery of Words.


Rhyming slang has been around since the Plio-Pleistocene Era, and the Cockney variant has been around so long that many have become mainstream colloquialisms infecting English as far as it reaches. Bread, meaning money comes from the rhyming slang bread and honey, which rhymes with money. Chew the fat was originally crsl. for have a chat, and brass tacks was originally crsl. for facts. Rhyming Slang is typically a two word phrase used in place of the word it rhymes with. Sometimes, especially where rhyming slang is used frequently, the end of the phrase gets dropped (as in the above examples) leaving a word seemingly quite unrelated to the word its standing for. Occasionally nesting occurs, and sometimes quite deeply bottle (and glass) is rsl. for arse, Aristotle is rsl. for bottle, Aristotle is shortened to aris, plaster of paris becomes rsl. for aris, and so plaster becomes sl. for arse. Would you Adam and Eve it!


There are many lists of (Cockney) rhyming slang (worth reading at least once if only to realize its surprising breadth), though I have included only those in general use or of some particular interest, including a little strine (Australian pronunciation of Australian), where this practice also flourishes. Apples and Pears (stairs) is well known, often being cited as an example of Cockney rhyming slang. Cockney rhyming slang is a living language with new words being invented all the time (and many becoming obsolete). Some have noted that it gets a boost every other generation. My grandparents were well versed, my father silently ignored it, my mother is still trying to hide her Cockney twang, and I am documenting it.


If there’s anything that distinguishes the Cockney, it’s his sheer enjoyment of words. He loves to stand them on end and make them jump through hoops and turn circles... There’s nothing better to a Cockney than to talk � to talk enjoyably, to talk comfortably, to use wonderful phrases. That’s Cockney.


�Bob Barltrop.


Whereas this may well be true, it is no less true of all peoples everywhere; pidgins, creoles, valspeak, surfer slang, technobabble � just visit any ghetto, grotto, ethnic area in a big city, the school yard, the beach, the valley, cyberspace...


Translations


If it was just a question of translating diaper to nappy, there would be no problem, but a vast amount of cultural gubbins stuck to the bottom of a welly is lost from a rubber boot.


When I read the first Harry Potter, I looked forward to a nice English story, but soon found the tell-tale signs � parking lots and trash cans instead of car parks and dustbins. Resigned, I ploughed on, but felt subtle misgivings at what I was missing, especially when some opaque Briticisms were left in (kip, git, sacked). So, I reread it in the original English, and made some comparisons.


Why they changed the title from Philosopher’s Stone to Sorcerer’s Stone is inscrutable. Sorcerer conjures up sinister. The Philosopher’s Stone has been sought by alchemists for millennia, for turning lead into gold. Interesting. (Why not Hegemon Stone!) Apparently, for the movie, they filmed each part that mentioned the Stone twice, for the separate American and rest-of-the-world audiences.


The translator took it from there. The bulk is spelling (realise ͖ realize, rumours ͖ rumors, maths ͖ math, etc.) and punctuation (Mrs ͖ Mrs., 1 July ͖ July 1, and primary quotes going from ‘single’ to double). Translations are actually few, but they’re high profile (ice lolly ͖ ice pop, letterbox ͖ mail slot, packet of crisps ͖ bag of chips). Therefore, it is translations, or partial translations, or lack of translations, that stick out the most. Dudley’s new word shan’t! became won’t! No complaints, but shan’t is just such a lovely word. However, baker’s becomes bakery in one sentence, but remains baker’s the next. Is this an oversight? ‘Dumbledore’s barking’ becomes ‘Dumbledore’s off his rocker’. But earlier, barking is left untranslated. Is it because Vernon qualifies it with ‘stark raving mad’? A number of other words were left untranslated (headmistress, knickerbockcer glory, holidays, ruddy, sprouts, marks) but their meanings would be close enough to be glossed over whilst still leaving a twang of quaintness.


Fiction has to just flow. No pictures, indexes, glossaries, footnotes, or sidebars. One long linear stream of uninterrupted imagination. Therefore, the goal of any translation is to not add any obstructions. There should be no foreign remnant that might cause the reader to stumble.


Everything else has some degree of leeway. An article can have sidebars and the odd footnote. A documentary can have pictures and tables. Nonfiction gets away with appendices, bibliographies, glossaries, and indices. And finally a scientific paper can be riddled with more citations, charts, equations, and inline glosses than words in the text.


In a sense, Harry Potter would be the easiest kind of translation, because it’s squarely situated in Britain, unlike something that’s set in a present day cosmopolitan location. Even so, much is lost whether translated or not. Even the Dursley’s address, 4 Privet Drive, Little Whinging, Surrey, evoking neat privet hedges in tidy drives, reeks of the politely suppressed frustrations of middle class suburbia. You’d never get away with 4600 Prim and Proper Blvd, Ostentatia CA 670 (despite the fact that there probably is such an address!).


In a scientific paper or general non-fiction, translation in either direction is mostly spelling and pronunciation. The editor would catch any jargon or unique vocabulary. In general articles, the same would apply, although a sprinkling of easy foreign terms would add flavour, and where necessary, can be explained. It’s fiction that’s the trickiest, because a character has to be both authentically ethnic and at the same time understandable. Unlike going from Russian to English or French to Chinese, English to English translation is further confounded by the apparent sameness of the language. Most people are surprised and amused at the extent that translation is even necessary. Ideally, a native would both translate, and have access to the author for finer points of meaning. It seems that there is a greater need to translate from British to American. Was Steinbeck, Hemingway, Twain translated to British?


Creating pieces would also benefit the once-over from a native. In that regard, this dictionary should very much be treated like a thesaurus. Any word should be looked up in a dictionary to make sure the sense is right. For period pieces, research is necessary to do it well. Not only do you not want high tech seeping into a western or Dickensian scene, but you need to capture the right idioms of the time and place.


A Spot of Linguistics


Estimates for how many words in the English language vary from half a million to two million. The latter figure perhaps includes all those ungainly chemical names, all the military and other jargon words, all the dialect terms, and slang. The OED has about half a million words in it, and the Websters unabridged almost as many. Collegiate and Concise dictionaries have about 00,000 words in them (up from 100,000 a few decades ago), but estimates of the average person’s vocabulary ranges from 0,000-50,000.


000 words account for three-quarters of the words we use from day-to-day, and another 1,000 make up most of the rest.


Looking at word lengths is a way to get a feel for these large word lists. The blue histogram in the Word Length chart comes from the Moby list (a public domain list of about half a million words) and is used to approximate the whole English lexicon. The green histogram comes from the bigd list, and represents a collegiate dictionary. The pink is the Shorter OED, and the pale blue is a Unix spell-check list, which can roughly represent the words we mostly know and use. The shorter the list, the more they contain common words. (Actually, the Unix list contains specially chosen roots from which, along with prefixes and suffixes, spell checking is done by applying rules, thus representing 100,000 words. So as a list it’s probably too short and the word length artificially short.)


The average word length in the shorter, more common, word lists is shorter. The average word length in English is over or 10 characters, but of words we commonly use, is only 7.


Of all the ways you could make -letter words from 6 letters of the alphabet (6), we actually use most of them, but of -letter words (6) we use only a quarter, 4-letter words (64) a twentieth, 5-letter words (65) two thousandths, on up to 8-letter words (68) where we use a scant three-millionth of the possibilities. For longer words, we have used virtually none of the possibilities. It indicates that we use short words where possible, but that new coinages tend to be longer words. It’s easier to combine a couple of existing words (data-base) than make short but awkward new words (lunk). It also indicates that there virtually an infinite number of open possibilities for new words using just the 6 letters of the alphabet.


Obligatory Humour


In the US...


An English exchange student asks someone “do you have a rubber”. Taken aback, she says, “but I don’t even know you”. A bit confused, he assures her, “I’ll only be a minute. I’ll bring it right back”.


When I was in LAX I asked an attendant for the toilet. He indicated where a restroom was. After half an hour I finally went to the bathroom, which I had discovered whilst diligently searching for the room full of couches.


A lady from the UK went for breakfast upon arriving in the US. She ordered fried eggs and was asked how would you like your eggs? She was perplexed and suggested cooked?


A friend visiting me in California, after complaining about being deplaned instead of being allowed to disembark, saw a sign announcing ‘Happy hour 4-6 p.m.’ and said Oh, everything here really is twice as big.


In the UK...


An American friend worked in an English pub one summer. A local ordered a light and bitter and my friend gave him a pint of bitter and some matches.


Another American friend was taken aback when she was invited to go down to the bloody pub and get pissed.


In Piccadilly Circus, London, one of the dossers (a panhandler) asked an American tourist, Can I pinch a fag, mate?


An American, whose husband was stationed in England, got up early one morning to find out if the milkman could explain the small holes in the foil tops on the milk bottles, and the missing portions of cream. Without blinking, he suggested, Must be yer tits, ma’am.


An American visiting English friends asked the missus how her new job was. He was very confused as she brightly told him it’s a really good screw





Please note that this sample paper on Differences is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Differences, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Differences will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from livepaperhelp and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!