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Thursday, May 31, 2012

DAN FLAVIN, INSTALATION MINIMALIST

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DAN FLAVIN, INSTALLATION MINIMALIST


Dan Flavin was born in New York City in 1, and died on November , 16. Flavin studied art history at the New School for Social Research in New York City. Starting in 16 he exhibited both nationally and internationally. In 18 Dia Center for the Arts opened the Dan Flavin Institute in Bridgehampton, New York. And in 1 Flavin created a monumental installation for the reopening of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York. Flavin didn’t always plan on becoming an artist. In fact his father wanted him to become a priest, and he actually attended a seminary in Brooklyn, New York from 147 to 15.


Dan Flavin is one of the major representatives of minimalism, which is an artistic style that emerged in the sixties and was defined by Michael Craig-Martin in 18. In minimalism, perception alone took the place of three possibilities for understanding art; no representation, no metaphysics, and no metaphor. For Flavin it all started in 16 when he fixed a fluorescent light to the wall of his studio and entitled it “ The Diagonal of Personal Ecstasy (The Diagonal of May 5, 16)”. This piece determined the artistic material he would use as well as his method for the rest of his life.


There are few artists that are so identified with any one specific medium, outside of painting, or sculpture, like Flavin. Except for drawings, or prints all of Flavin’s work consist of light in the form of commercially available fluorescent tubes in nine colors, and five shapes. Since his medium is limited in size, color, and shape, he often used lights in relationship to a specific architectural context. When asked what art has been for him Flavin replied “I have known it as a sequence of implicit decisions to combine traditions of painting and sculpture in architecture with acts of electric light defining space”. (artcyclopedia.com)


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There were three defining moments in Flavin’s career as an installation artist-his first invention of fluorescent light art in 16, his free-standing work created in 170, and the staircase work in 16. Flavin believed there was an aesthetic with the diversity of artificial light. The simplicity, yet systematic character of his world-renowned work, has earned him a reputation as a chief exponent of minimalism, even though he never accepted the label. Even though Flavin studied at some of the finest colleges and universities, he was self-taught as an artist. A lot of Flavin’s earlier pieces were influenced by contemporary American art, and included things like poems, and other texts in the paintings.


Flavin’s style of art is, and has been, a very distinct and energetic style. One set of his works known as “barriers” were linear arrangements of freestanding fluorescent fixtures that literally blocked physical access across the room. One of the most unique aspects of Flavin’s light works is the manner in which they reflect over the walls around them. The invention of the barrier is a literal extension of that idea whereby the light’s environmental presence is made known by its occupance of the gallery’s central space. This makes for a great effect to the viewer because it represents a sense of invasion into the viewers territory. By means of fluorescent light, Flavin established a connection between opposing terms; the literal and the icon. The light of the icon is not a light that indirectly illuminates a scene to be represented, but one that radiates through the object itself. Flavin’s work is most definitely something that must be seen in person, due to the fact that the perspective of the room and spatial context with the lighting is one that cannot be reproduced in a photograph published in a book. Flavin’s use of color both of the lights and color of the room is magnificent. In a lot of his pieces he just uses white lights and paints the room a bright color so the lights produce a radiating glow which makes them the focal point. Dan Flavin explained the ideas behind his installations like this “ I knew that the actual space of a room could be broken down and played with by planting illusions of real light (electric light) at crucial junctures in the room’s composition. For example, if you press an eight-foot fluorescent lamp into the vertical climb of a corner, you can destroy that corner by glare and doubled shadow. A piece of wall can be visually disintegrated from the whole into a separate triangle by plunging a diagonal of light from edge to edge on the wall; that is, side to floor for instance.”


When asked about things that bother him or that he would prefer not to exist Flavin replied “…I do not like the term ‘environment’ associated with my proposal. It seems to me to imply living conditions and perhaps an invitation to comfortable residence….Also I intend rapid comprehensions-get in and get out situations. I think that one has explicit moments with such particular light-space…and before I forget, please do not refer to my effort as sculpture and to me as a sculptor. I do not handle and fashion three-dimensioned still works,….I feel apart from problems of sculpture and painting but, there is no need to re-tag me and my part.”


After reviewing Flavin’s work, I am an instant fan. The ideas he was able to develop in his mind, and the feelings he was able to convey are incredible. He is greatly recognized for what he contributed to the Minimalist idea of art, and has been honored in many different ways. He broke out into a world that was unfamiliar with his style of art, and not only introduced it to them but helped them understand and like it. For that he will be greatly appreciated and remembered for a long time to follow. “The Architecture of Light”, Dan Flavin. 1 The Soloman R. Guggenheim Foundation, New York.


http//www.artnet.com/library.0/085/t0854.asp.


www.artcyclopedia.com.


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Krispy Kreme

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Vernon Rudolph bought a doughnut shop in 1 from Joe LeBeau. Rudolph’s purchased included the rights to the Krispy Kreme name, the secrete doughnut recipe, and all company assets. Rudolph moved the doughnut shop from Paducah, Kentucky to Nashville, Tennessee looking for larger markets when his family joined the operations and opened other shops in West Virginia, and Georgia. The doughnut shops produced, marketed, and delivered fresh doughnuts to local grocery stores. Rudolph became dissatisfied with the slow growing business conditions, so he closed up all shops and moved to N. Carolina and opened the first Krispy Kreme. At this time they still delivered doughnuts to local stores but not directly to customers. The people of Salem, N. Carolina love Krispy Kreme doughnuts so much that they started stopping by to purchase doughnuts. With so many requests Rudolph built a dirve through window for retail customers. By the late 150’s Krispy Kreme was located in 1 states with about doughnut shops and soon started standardizing the shops through the exterior and the production process.


In 16 Krispy Kreme started implementing a repositioning strategy for the company because of increased competition. Krispy Kreme is being pushed to keep up with other competitors in the market place. Krispy Kreme is trying to keep up with their competitors with out losing the current market share in the U.S.


Strategic Profile (Shaye)


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Krispy Kreme wants to better compete in the market place to gain more of the market by 0%. Through increasing their product lines to have more than just doughnuts like fritters, muffins, bagels and turnovers and variety of each one of these categories would better match the competitor offerings. The variety of products offered would bring a wider range of people who would buy from Krispy Kreme. Adding a variety of beverages to their menu would also bring in customers who would have not normally stopped at Krispy Kreme.


Krispy Kreme is a Broad Differentiated Company by the way they allow the public to watch the doughnuts being made in the stores from beginning to end. Some of their competitors also offer this but never advertise it to consumers therefore a majority of people don’t know that they can watch the process. Another way they differentiate is the red sign that tells the public that they have fresh doughnuts ready to sell. The red neon sign is a distinction that the public also recognizes. This process of watching the doughnuts being made and the red neon sign flashing “Fresh Doughnuts” has created a recognizable brand image for Krispy Kreme.


The special recipe of Krispy Kreme has been kept secrete for many years and way they have kept it within the Company is by being vertically integrated. KK Manufacturing and Distribution manufactures the machinery and produces the doughnut mixes that the franchisees use in their stores. One reason they manufacture the machines is so that they can be ensured that each machine will perform the same operation so there is no difference between the doughnut making process. They also produce the mixes for the doughnuts to keep a “consistent recipe quality” throughout the Company and franchisees. They control the production process very well through making sure that each batch of mix is correct by making doughnuts from the mix they just produced, before they ship out the package mix to their franchisees. The other reason Krispy Kreme manufactures and produces their own machines and mixes is to make the franchisees purchase everything from them, which is another means of bringing in profits. In 17 KK Manufacturing and Distribution was the second largest contributor to Krispy Kreme’s over all operating income.


External Analysis (Russell)


Krispy Kreme Doughnuts has many customers that rave they are the best Donut producer in the U.S. However the case gives good examples of customers belonging to Krispy Kreme’s competitors that say LaMars, Tim Horton’s, and Winchell’s Donuts are the best donut producers. LaMar’s donuts won the countries favorite donut award given by Gourmet Magazine. These competitors are important because they are growing very rapidly along with Krispy Kreme, and they seem to be concentrating in similar market regions.


Dunkin Donuts is probably Krispy Kreme’s largest competitor. Dunkin Donuts is so large they want the competition from Krispy Kreme, they say there customers are so loyal that Krispy Kreme’s advertising will increase sales for Dunkin Donuts. The Mom and Pop shops are confident in themselves as well, they say the market is so large that Krispy Kreme will not hurt their sales. Donuts are an affordable indulgences therefore the market is large enough to support many donut/coffee/deli variety shops.


Krispy Kreme is going to have to go global if they want to take the largest share of the donut market, Dunkin Donuts, LaMars, and Tim Horton’s are prospering in several countries. Krispy Kreme does have an advantage on their competition with their secret yeast recipe that gives the donuts a large and lightweight appeal that the customers really seem to like. Krispy Kreme is vertically integrated which helps them control the quality the franchises are putting out as does their testing laboratories. Krispy Kreme wholesaling their product to supermarkets is a good way to up production in effect lowering the overall cost of each donut produced, it is also a good way to get their name out there and to get more unaware consumers to try their product. Many of Krispy Kreme’s competitors mass produce donuts for wholesale purposes, so it is important for them to strategies on being a quality direct sales franchise and wholesale distributor. Vertical integration plays a key roll in allowing this to happen


Krispy Kreme and Dunkin Donut chains are in a high velocity industry, where highly vigorous growth is important. The IPO in April of 000 is of great benefit to Krispy Kreme as it will help raise needed capital for growth and their name being traded on the stock exchange will help its image throughout the U.S. Overseas growth is very important. Many foreign countries are much more health conscious than the U.S., however Krispy Kreme donuts have a lower fat and calorie content than most of their major competitors in most all their varieties of donuts. Donuts are also an inexpensive way to indulge in a sweet treat or pick me up and donuts are usually an impulse purchase and people do not weigh the health issues against them as much as they might for a dinner or larger meal.


External Assessment (Georganne)


Dunkin Donuts is the industry leader in doughnut sales. They held 45% of the market share in 001 and 77% in 1. Dunkin Donuts places more emphasis on coffee and convenience than Krispy Kreme. Dunkin Donuts has been able to keep its leadership position by providing a wide variety of products to include coffee (their #1 seller) and other drinks, adding a low-fat muffins, bagels, etc., and making their doughnuts smaller so that the nutritional value is slightly lower in calories and fat.


Internal Assessment (Lakendra)


Krispy Kreme offers its yeast-raising donuts and coffee, but its competitors offer a variety of foods such as bagels, muffins, cookies, tarts, etc.; broadening customer appeal. My analysis shows that in order for Krispy Kreme to expand the market, it has to keep up with its competitors and give customers what they want. Krispy Kreme developed a vertically integrated supply chain used to manufacture the mixes for its donuts and its donut-making equipment. My analysis shows that vertical integration increases its capital investment and increases the cash used for the financing activities which is not good, but it, in turn, produces both revenue and earnings from the mixes and equipment. Vertical integration can cause Krispy Kreme to lock into its own supplies instead of branching out and building alliances which, in turn, can cause it to lose buyer demand. Krispy Kreme can use its own supplies by outsourcing its donut mixes to stores. This analysis can improve flexibility and brand recognition, but it can also cause a risk to the company as well. The donut mix can easily be copied by competitors, which may create major problems for the company in the future.


Krispy Kreme has a problem with lack of advertising. It relies on newspapers, media, and word of mouth. My analysis shows that if the company advertises, not just in the same vicinity as the Krispy Kreme stores but nationwide, it can increase name recognition. Advertising may also help increase the profit margin, and it could possibly help the company expand in the foreign market. Re-opening in areas of 100,000+ homes may also increase revenue and improve brand recognition.


My analysis also shows that the company-owned revenue is much greater than the franchised revenue as well as the operating expenses and the operating income. An increase in the royalty fees for the franchises may increase their revenues. Krispy Kreme has multiple activities going on at one time which can get confusing. The company should decide if it wants to concentrate on being a donut store or a wholesaler. Donuts are popular in grocery stores due to convenience; the customers do not have to make a special trip to the donut store to purchase Krispy Kreme donuts. They are also popular due to the store being unavailable in that city or state. Having a Krispy Kreme donut store is popular as well due to the regular commuters and neighborhood residents. My analysis shows that the donut store is doing relatively well opposed to just selling wholesale. Krispy Kreme has estimated store revenue of $,600,000, cash flow of $60,000, cash flow margin of 7%, and a cash flow return on equity investment of 1%. In 001, the operating expenses totaled $50,60 which was high, but it yield a net income of $14,75. Overall, Krispy Kreme is in good financial standings, but it could create a better outcome after it produces a variety of products that customers want, it decides what specific thing it wants to focus on as far as a store or wholesaler, start advertising, and increase royalty fees. After Krispy Kreme focuses on these particular assessments, it has the potential to sustain a competitive advantage.


Internal Assessment (Georganne)


The current ration for 001 is 177%. This means Krispy Kreme has plently of money available to pay current liabilities.


Krispy Kreme offered stock for sale in January 1 and January 001 and each time the sale increased their cash flows and in 16 and 1 Krispy Kreme set aside funding for restructuring. For 001 dividends paid increased approximately .5 times more than previous years.


From 17 Revenue increased approximately $0,000 million each year until the year 000 when it doubled and in the year of 001 it tripled.


Sales of donut mixes and customized doughnut-making equipment amounted to 6% of revenues and company store revenues were 71% and franchise operations revenues were %. During our analysis, we were amazed to discover the amount of revenue generated by company owned stores considering they only make up 6% of total stores.


In 001, Krispy Kreme had 6% of company-owned stores and 64% were franchised stores out of a total of 174 stores. Franchised stores make up 64% of total stores yet revenues earned by Krispy Kreme from franchises only make up % of total revenues. Might want to create new strategy to increase these revenues.


Krispy Kreme has vertically integrated by providing the only source for all donut mixes and customized doughnut-making equipment needed in all its stores and its franchises. The doughnut-making equipment is one-of-a-kind in that in each store you can watch the doughnut making process from start to finish.


Recommendations (Patrick )


(need to add financials for royalties to show what % net profit each store makes so you can see haw much royalties could be charged while franchises still make a healthy profit.)


Krispy Kreme needs to raise the royalties that are paid by the franchises as well raise the initial franchise fee. In 001 there were 86 franchises and 58 company owned stores. Revenues from Krispy Kreme franchises made up only percent of total revenues, while the 58 company owned stores made up 71 percent of total revenues. For the number of franchises that there are and the amount average profit that each store makes the revenues from franchises should be substantially greater than they are. The current franchise royalty fee is only 4.5 percent which needs to be to around 10 percent. The franchise fee of $0,000 to $40,000 needs to also be raised. This fee is earned back in a matter of weeks with the sales that an average Krispy Kreme makes.


Krispy Kreme needs to develop the national market more before it ventures out into the international market. The U.S market has not reached it fullest potential yet. Although they are not allowing anymore franchises in the U.S, they need to receive more royalties from the current franchises before allowing anymore to be sold. The applications that they are accepting for international franchises are a good hold for the future but they need to wait a few years before they develop into these markets. The international markets are not the same as the national markets. Health factors are a much bigger issues in the international markets. Donuts are horrible for your health and in these more health conscious parts of the world, Krispy Kreme will not succeed with there current product line. Before entering these markets Krispy Kreme needs to broaden its product line like many of their main competitors have done to things such as bagels and muffins. Also the amount of disposable income is not as great as it is in the U.S. Canada will be a good international market for Krispy Kreme to begin selling franchises in, but it needs to hold off on selling any franchises in other countries.


Krispy Kreme also needs a little more definition to each of its stores. The stores are currently performing to many functions. There should one main store in each region dedicated to producing goods for the sale to grocery stores and fund rasing activities. The companies’ goal is to provide Hot and Fresh donuts to the customers. This is not as easily attainable when you are trying to make donuts for these customers as well as for the other locations. The retail Krispy Kremes should only focus on, on premise sales and all other sales should be done through a new distribution type center. This would also increase sales since franchises where only paying 1 percent royalties off of sales of this nature.


Alternatives (Hussain)


Since Krispy Kreme is a constantly growing, the franchise fee can be increased. This will generate the much needed funds for the internal growth of the company. Currently Krispy Kreme has 181 stores in 8 states by the year 000. This can be easily expanded to all 50 states and the number of stores can be easily doubled by the end of this year. A good example to follow would be Dunkin Doughnuts. They have expanded not only taking the doughnut market but also have succeeded in outselling bagels in the bagel dominating society.


Another good alternative could be selling of franchise for distribution center instead of individual stores. This would help the company to reach more stores, greater number of people and will definitely generate more income. Selling distribution franchise will also reduce the company overhead cost since they will be dealing with less people on day to day basis. This will insure product availability and will also ensure easily accessible to he consumers.


Recommendation


On the basis of my study of this case, there are few recommendations we would like to make. First of all, Krispy Kreme needs to expand their product line and consideration for inclusion of beverages should also be taken into account. This will ensure equal competition with Dunkin Donuts on similar platform. Krispy Kreme may have better line of doughnuts, but because its main competitors have things other than doughnuts it can easily outsell it. To tackle this issue Krispy Kreme must include new line of product including but not limited to bagels, drinks and muffins.


Another recommendation would be to carefully consider the international market before launching its product. Krispy Kreme also needs to expand within United States more and get a firm hold in the US market before considering launching international franchisee. A good example to follow would be of its main competitor. The best place to launch would be the area where Dunkin Donuts has been successful.


Some people also think that an easy way to acquire more market is to go to places with its product where no one has ever been. This might mean to go into rural areas and places other competitors have not reached yet.


Another way to acquire greater market share would be through aggressive advertisement campaign. This will lead to greater sale and increased market share.








Please note that this sample paper on Krispy Kreme is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Krispy Kreme, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Krispy Kreme will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from livepaperhelp and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



HEY

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on HEY. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality HEY paper right on time.

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Smoking Danger


Smoking Danger


Every year thousands of people die because of lung cancer or other tobacco related illnesses. Everyone in the world comes in contact with smoke from a cigarette at least once in their lifetime, whether it is at a restaurant or at work. Millions of people are addicted to smoking, and thousands more become addicted every year. Cigarettes and other tobacco products are everywhere. Most of the addicted smokers started when they were young (Roberts 18). The reason why people get addicted to any type of tobacco product is because all tobacco products have nicotine in them, which is the addictive ingredient (American


Thoracic Society ). Every time a person smokes a cigarette or chews tobacco, that person ingests nicotine. I believe that the tobacco companies should be liable for every tobacco-related death each year. On the other hand, some people believe that everyone has a right to make their own judgment about their life.


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My opponent, Rosalind Marimont argues drugs and alcohol are more dangerous to society than tobacco (6). Second hand smoking is not a danger to the health of the community (Marimont 6). There are health benefits for people that do smoke tobacco (Marimont 7). So many people quit smoking each year, it is so ridiculous to think that tobacco products are addicting argues Richard


DeGrandpre (). The facts about tobacco and tobacco products have been shaded by the government and government agencies to make smoking less acceptable and more inconvenient to smokers and tobacco users Sullum argues (55). My opponents firmly believe that there are no risks if a person starts smoking. As you will see, I will show extenuating facts that disprove my opponents views on tobacco products. My opponent states that smoking is not dangerous, however, I intend to prove that smoking is dangerous not just to smokers, but to everyone as well. It is a proven fact that smoking causes lung cancer and heart disease (American


Thoracic Society 1). Every person that breathes the smoke of tobacco products is at risk for tobacco-related illnesses. Even though smoking is not as publicized by the media as much as illegal drugs, cigarettes are just as bad.


Smoking cigarettes leads to the use of other drugs that are more harmful to the person than cigarettes (Hall ). If smoking was not dangerous, then why is there a commercial on television telling the viewer that the tobacco companies kill 1000 people everyday? The statistics on the number of people that die each year in the United States from tobacco or tobacco-related illness is astonishing. Over four hundred thousand people die each year from smoking (American Thoracic Society 1). Also, a person age twenty-five that is a heavy smoker has a life expectancy that is twenty-five percent less than a person that does not smoke (American Thoracic Society 1). more For something that is not a hazard to people’s health, they sure do account for a lot of deaths that occur each year. I do not see how my opponent can contend that secondhand smoke is not a heath hazard to the rest of the community. Secondhand smoke affects everyone because it goes into the air. We (nonsmokers) can not protect ourselves from other people’s cigarette smoke (Garrision 44). Everyone breaths, therefore, if you are sitting next to someone that smokes, you are probably getting a some smoke in your lungs. This happens because when smoke goes into the air, it disappears into the oxygen. As you breath in oxygen, you also breath in a minimal amount of the cigarette smoke. In 186, a surgeon general’s report was released that stated smoke from tobacco products can cause cancer in healthy non-smoking adults (Garrision 45). It has been proven that secondhand smoke can cause lung cancer and other tobacco-related illnesses in people that do not smoke (Garrision 45). Yet the tobacco companies continue to deny that the smoke of cigarettes cause these illnesses to non-users of tobacco (Garrision 47). The


Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has estimated that secondhand smoke is the cause of over three thousand deaths from lung cancer each year (Garrison 44).


Smoking has also been linked to colon cancer. Even if you quit smoking, your risk of colon cancer remains higher than if you had never started smoking (Keyishian


1). Many people are aware of the harmful effects of secondhand smoke and agree with restrictions and/or a total ban on smoking in public (Garrision 48).


Tobacco products should be regulated by the Food and Drug Administration because it affects not only smokers, but non-smokers as well. As you can see, smoke from tobacco products does affect everyone in one way or another. I agree with my opponent that smokers are usually less obese (Marimont 7). However, just because there are a couple of health benefit’s that not mean that smoking is better for everyone. People who smoke are not able to perform exercises for any length of time (Hall ). Smoking reduces the amount of air the lungs can take in and it makes breathing difficult when running or walking ( Keyishian 15). In the early nineties, one in every five deaths were caused by smoking or using tobacco products (American Thoracic Society 1). Hundreds of thousands of people die each year because of tobacco products, whether the person dies from lung cancer, throat cancer, or emphysema (Hall ). Pregnant women that smoke during their pregnancy will have a child that is born with a low birthweight and premature mortality (American Thoracic Society). Smoking with a small child in the house could cause the child to develop asthma or other respiratory problems (America Thoracic Society ). If a woman smokes while pregnant, she could have a child that has a lower intelligence and behavior problems (America Thoracic


Society ). Just like cocaine and heroin, cigarettes’ can cause a user to have withdrawal symptoms after a period of not getting the nicotine he/she needs (American Thoracic Society ). If the smoker does not get their nicotine fix, he/she could become irritable, have anxiety, difficulty concentrating and their appetite may increase (American Thoracic Society ). The smoker may believe that if he/she does not get their nicotine and gets hungry, he/she may see themselves gaining weight. If gaining a little weight will help you live longer and with fewer health conditions, then I believe the weight it worth it. The longer you are not smoking, the less of a chance you will have to get cancer or other health problems from tobacco products (American Thoracic Society ). How can the benefits of smoking out weight the risks involved, especially when it involves innocent children? These children are the future of the world and if they smoke, there life expectancy will diminish greatly with every cigarette they smoke. If the children die, then we, the human race, have no future.


Richard DeGrandpre contends that nicotine is not an addictive drug in tobacco products (). The nicotine in tobacco has met the criteria for it to be a highly addictive and toxic drug to people who use it (Douglas 4). The youth of today are becoming smokers more and more everyday (Bonnie 4). Statistics have proven that underage smoking has been rising. In 1, statistics proved that there were more than three million children smoking in the United States (Bonnie


4). The tobacco companies contend that nicotine is not addictive, however, the


Food and Drug Administration and the Environmental Protection Agency have released numerous reports on the addictiveness of nicotine (Douglas 4). Smoking is inhaling and exhaling of smoke from a tobacco product (Smoking 40).


Look, nicotine is used to kill insects and parasites, just think about what is doing to the body of smokers. A smoker may start out just smoking a couple cigarettes a day, but the more the person smokes the higher their dependency on nicotine gets (Douglas 4). Just like other drugs, the user develops a tolerance which causes them to use more to get the effect he/she wants (Douglas 4). This is how the government connects nicotine to other drugs, because of it’s addictiveness. Nicotine has been classified as a habit-forming drug (Keyishian


14). Nicotine is not the only ingredient that is bad for the human body. There are many other harmful chemicals in cigarettes such as arsenic, ammonia, carbon monoxide, methane, acetone, and many more (Douglas ). These chemicals can be very dangerous in large quantities by themselves. I cannot see how anyone can smoke something with so many harmful chemicals in it. Every person that smokes or breathes in smoke from tobacco products are killing themselves whether it is their choice or not. My opponents state that the government has shaded statistics to make smoking less acceptable. I do not understand how anyone can shade statistical information. Studies have proven how bad tobacco products are for tobacco users and non-tobacco users. Over thirty-seven thousand nonsmokers die of heart-disease each year (Garrision 45).


It is estimated that over thirteen thousand non-smokers die from other cancers each year (Garrision 45). Between one hundred and fifty thousand and three hundred thousand cases of lower respiratory-tract infection’s for children under eighteen months were reportedly linked to secondhand smoke exposure (Garrison 45). The Environmental Protection Agency did a study of women who lived with a smoker and those women are 1.1 times more likely to get lung cancer. A female smoker is ten times more likely to get lung cancer than a nonsmoking female. A male smoker is about twenty times more likely to get lung cancer than a nonsmoking male (Sullum 5). The Center for Disease Control (CDC), did a study on the cigarettes used most by teenagers. The results were that teenagers smoke the most advertised brand of cigarettes (Bailey 74). The statistical data from government agencies such as the Food and Drug


Administration, the Center for Disease Control, and the Environmental Protection


Agency is hard concrete facts about the effects of smoking on the human body. As you can see, there is more than enough evidence to support the Food and Drug


Administration’s claim of serious health risks from tobacco products. The Food and Drug Administration wants to be able to regulate tobacco advertising so it may cut down on the number of teens that start smoking each year. Study after study has proven that with smoking comes major health risks. Even people that do not smoke are at risk of these heath problems. Statistics do not lie, one thousand people die everyday from tobacco or tobacco related illnesses.


Statistical data can not be altered in any way nor can they be shaded by anyone.


Tobacco products are not going to go away for good, however the Food and Drug


Administration should be given the authority to regulate the advertising of tobacco companies. The only product the Food and Drug Administration can not regulate is the manufacture, sale, packaging, and distribution of tobacco products (Douglas ). If the advertisements can be cut down, then many teenagers will not be influenced to try them as much as they are now. Given this compromise, the tobacco companies will still get money from the people that are already addicted, but it will greatly reduce the amount of money they make each year. Tobacco products are always going to be around, but I hope that the Food and Drug Administration will be able to regulate them for the safety of not only adults, but for all of the children as well.





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Do Auditing and Assurance Service have a future?

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1 Introduction


Recent large corporate collapses- like Pasminco, Ansett, OneTel, Impulse Airlines, Harris Scarfe, and HIH Holdings, while the US giants include Enron, WorldCom, Waste Management, MicroStrategy, and Phar-Mor - have exposed gaping holes in the system of investor safeguards designed to ensure that investors receive full and fair disclosure about the companies in which they invest. The collapse has also focused attention on the issue of auditor independence. Although a company and not its auditors is ultimately responsible for the information it discloses (or declines to disclose) to the public, independent auditors have long played a critical role in protecting investors. By applying widely accepted accounting principles to their clients books, auditors are supposed to verify that what a company wants to report as profits are actually that, and that what a company doesnt want to call debts are nonetheless known. Here, auditors are supposed to provide the first line of defense against misleading financial disclosures, but in most of the cases auditors were blamed categorically not to fulfill their public watchdog function. This paper attempts to ascertain how far auditors are liable and their possible failings contributing to corporate collapse. Also this paper tries to find out how far investors confidence has been affected and whether auditing and other assurance services still have a future after all these unwanted developments.


. Auditors and their role


An audit is a verification of the information that others rely upon to make decisions-decisions that can have repercussions throughout the economy. Investors need assurance from an independent and reliable party on the accuracy of a company’s financial report. Naturally such an expectation and reliance makes the auditors’ role very critical in the capital market. To provide this assurance auditors are required to maintain the highest ethical and professional standards to ensure their independence.


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Moreover, through out the world the statutory regulation requires any company that offers securities - meaning, effectively, any major reporting company - to have independent, certified accountants sign off on their publicly available financial statements. This has, needless to say, created a highly lucrative franchise for accounting firms.


.1 The importance of independence


Independence in auditing means taking an unbiased viewpoint in the performance of audit tests, the evaluation of the results and the issuance of the audit report. If the auditor is an advocate for or influenced by an employee or the management of the auditee or have some other interests, the auditor cannot be considered independent or objective. Audit Guidance Statement (AUP) highlights three personal attributes essential to maintaining an in independent frame of mind integrity, objectivity and strength of character.


The two most important issues that need to be considered are independence of fact and independence in appearance. Independence in fact exists when the auditor actually maintains an unbiased attitude throughout the audit; whereas independence in appearance is the result of other’s interpretations of the situation. If auditors are independent in fact but users believe them to advocate for the auditee, most of the value of the audit function will be lost.


In Australia, this requirement is reflected in Section B.4 of the Joint Code of Professional Conduct (CPC) of CPA Australia and ICAA that states


Members must be and should be seen to be free of any interest which might be regarded, whatever its actual effect, as being incompatible with integrity and objectivity.


An auditor must not only be unimpeded from any conflict of interest (which may lead to an impairment of judgement), but be seen as objective and impartial by shareholders and third parties who rely on the audit report. When inappropriate financial or other relationships exist between the auditor and client management or directors, the reliability of the audit report may reasonably be questioned.


. Changing role of auditors


In recent years there have been tremendous changes in the auditing and assurance services profession. The auditing profession has identified that financial report auditing is a mature product and therefore does not have the growth prospects of other services generally offered by the accounting profession. This flattening in demand for audit services has at the same time been accompanied by a growing demand by various groups for various levels of assurance and management consulting services. This development creates an opportunity for auditing professionals to use their acknowledged skills and reputation for competence, objectivity and independence as a means of promoting themselves as the most appropriate providers of high quality management consulting services.





As a result traditional audit services are becoming a diminishing proportion of the services offered by accounting firms. Throughout the 10s, accounting firms began to offer consulting services along with traditional auditing services to their clients, and discovered that often, the consulting work was the more profitable.


But the incidence of recent corporate collapse has triggered a new debate. Many regulators, social commentators and the most of the academicians argue that the breadth of services offered by public accounting firms impairs independence to the extent that public confidence in the audit function loses much of its value. They deem that consulting and auditing services are incompatible. According to them, consulting enmeshes auditors in their clients business in ways detrimental to auditors’ independence. Investigations of the accounting profession in the United States in the late 170s by ‘Senator Metcalf and Congressman Moss concluded that management services were a detriment to the independent of performance of audits. They recommended restrictions be put on auditors in performing these service.


In Australia, CPC F.7 generally prohibits members in public practice from concurrently engaging in any business, occupation or activity, which is inconsistent and incompatible with the provision of professional services to clients. But, currently the ethical rules contain no restrictions on the management services that can be performed, provided the auditor or any person in the practice does not participate in the executive function of the auditee.


At this point, it is helpful to examine some conflicts of independence that have arisen out of the recent corporate collapses, evaluate their significance and determine how the profession of auditing has been affected.


. Enron case


Investors blamed Arthur Anderson for its failure to pick up on some of the most obvious signs that Enron was not as healthy as its financial statements made it out to be. Although Andersen now claims to have been misled about key transactions, the evidence that Andersen was well aware of Enrons financial artifice is overwhelming. Arthur Andersen CEO Joseph F. Berardino acknowledged in congressional testimony that auditors had identified serious problems with Enrons financial statements as early as 17.


But the real question, then, is not how Andersen failed to see the warning signs, but why, having seen the signs, they agreed to put their seal of approval on the companys misleading financial statements. One reason is that Andersens audit of Enron was independent in name only. Because Anderson had a lot more at stake than their accounting fees. Traditional accounting for Anderson was, compared to consulting, less and less profitable. In 000, half of Arthur Andersens fees from Enron (approximately $50 million) came from consulting work. Moreover, the Enron account was simply too big an account to lose, first because of the $100 million it was expected to produce in the near future, but also for its symbolic value to Andersens image as the lead auditor for the energy industry.


There is also a specific problem with the type of consulting that Andersen did for Enron. One type of consulting that most of the major accounting firms continue to do themselves relates to the accounting and information systems for their clients. Andersen helped set up Enrons internal accounting procedures.


The problem, of course, is that such work vitiates the notion of independence. Auditing is supposed to provide a second set of eyes. But if Andersen created Enrons accounting procedures and trained its people, how can it also step back and review those procedures critically? At that point, criticism would be tantamount to an admission of incompetence or worse.


4. More examples of similar cases


Onetel HIH


A similar lack of independence can be found in other high profile accounting scandals of recent years. Transcripts from a lawsuit following the accounting failure at Phar-Mor Inc., for example, showed its Coopers & Lybrand auditor received bonuses and performance evaluations based, at least in part, on his success in cross-selling the firms non-audit services. A lawsuit against MicroStrategy, which in March 000 disavowed years of financial statements that hid extensive losses, uncovered the fact that a senior PricewaterhouseCoopers manager assigned to the audit was applying for a job as chief financial officer of a MicroStrategy subsidiary while working on the audit. The high-profile accounting scandal at Waste Management, in which the SEC accused Arthur Andersen of repeatedly signing off on financial statements it knew to be misleading, bore many of the hallmarks of the Enron disaster. Arthur Andersen had been the companys auditor for 0 years. From 171 to 17, all of Waste Managements chief financial officers and chief accounting officers were former Andersen auditors. The partner assigned to lead the audit was responsible for coordinating marketing of non-audit services, with compensation directly influenced by the volume of such services sold. And Andersen was billing Waste Management more than twice as much for non-audit work as it was for the independent audit.


A recent analysis of proxy statement revelations of non-audit fees shows such conflicts are widespread, at least among large companies. The study, conducted by University of Illinois professor Andrew D. Bailey, looked at the first 56 proxy statements filed by Fortune 1000 companies after new disclosure rules went into effect in February 001. Among the 56 companies examined, only two paid no non-audit fees to their auditor, and, on average, clients reported paying their accountant $.6 in fees for non-audit services for every dollar spent on audit fees. In some cases, however, the imbalance was far greater. In the most extreme examples, Puget Energy paid PricewaterhouseCooper $17 million for non-audit fees and just $54,000 for its audit, and Marriott International Inc. paid $0 million to Arthur Andersen for non-audit services, compared with only $1 million for its audit. The evidence is clear conflicts that impair auditor independence are rampant.


5. Responsibility of different parties in corporate collapse


There has been a tendency for many of the affected groups to go into denial mode. The regulator saying that the problem is with the auditors, the auditors saying that the problem is with corporate governance, and the companies blaming the ineptitude of the regulators. So it is imperative to determine the degree of responsibility of each party involved.


5.1. Degree of auditor’s responsibility


Auditors are not the gatekeepers of corporate crime, nor are they responsible for the success or failure of the company’s business operations and management. They perform very specific statutory duties, primarily aimed at providing a form of check of the company’s annual and half year financial reports to shareholders aimed at ensuring that they provide a “true and fair’ view of the company’s financial position. AUS 10 require that an audit be designed to provide reasonable assurance of detecting material misstatements in the financial report arising from irregularities including fraud, other illegal acts and error. Thus an auditor’s responsibility ends with giving high level of assurance but not absolute assurance.


5..Degree of management’s responsibility


The responsibility for adopting sound accounting policies, maintaining adequate internal controls and making fair representation in the financial statement rests with management rather than auditor. Because it operates the business daily a company management knows more about the company’s stakeholders, transactions and related assets, liabilities and equity than the auditor does. In recognition of this responsibility borne by management, the Corporation Act require the directors of a public company to include a directors’ declaration in the financial report before the auditor reports on them. So the prevention and detection of fraud and error is primarily the responsibility of management, and ultimately the directors.


The major role of a board of directors is to provide stewardship to a company. The key function of the board is to ensure the integrity of the corporations accounting and financial reporting systems. This includes independent audit and appropriate systems of control; in particular systems for monitoring risk, financial control, and compliance with the law.


The auditor does have the responsibility to plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance that the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether caused by error or fraud. As an audit does the selective testing of transactions and balances it cannot guarantee the detection of all material irregularities, as such irregularities or fraud are often concealed from auditors through forgery or collusion. So it is not a good idea to responsible the auditor for a corporate collapse without considering the circumstances.


6. Factors to be considered


The quality of an audited report sometimes depends of the following factors. Besides, the expectation of the investor on the audited report also play a major role how an auditor will be blamed if something goes wrong with the company.


6.1.Expectation gap factor


The difficulty arises when there has been a business failure, but not an audit failure. For example, when a company fails or cannot pay its debts, it is common for statement users to claim that there was an audit failure, especially when the most recently issued auditor’s opinion indicates the financial statements were true and fair. Even worse, if there is a business failure and the financial statements are later determined to have been misstated, users may claim that the auditor was negligent even if the audit was conducted in accordance with auditing standards. Their duty is limited in only providing a reasonable assurance and writing an audit report on the basis of the findings. However, there are inherent limitations of auditors on auditing annual and other reports


1. The reports are historical, and do not predict the future-as such, they are only but one tool among several that investors and their advisers need in order to make informed investment decisions about companies.


. The auditor looks only at the accuracy of the company’s financial records, and does not consider other data, relevant to the company’s performance.


. The role of the auditor does not extend into what is probably the most important area of disclosure-continuous disclosure.


As a result, an unqualified audit report cannot guarantee absolutely that the financial statements are free of error; nor can it guarantee the future viability of the company. But the investors when evaluating audit report hardly consider these limitations in the report. They tend to rely heavily on auditor’s assurance and expect that the auditor will be able to pick up any signal of catastrophe to warn the investors. This expectation is often the source of misunderstanding of the audit objective and is referred to as the audit expectation gap that is, the gap between the publics expectation of auditor performance and the publics perception of the auditors actual performance. While the public may expect infallibility in relation to the accuracy of financial reports, the early warning of failure and the detection and reporting of irregularities, auditors have no duty to report on a companys internal control structure unless specifically requested to do so.


Perhaps the profession has a responsibility to educate statement users about the role of auditors and the difference between business failure, audit failure and audit risk. It is important to distinguish the difference between business failure and audit failure. An auditor is responsible of the audit failure only. In a legal battle, the auditors will be tested on the ground that whether the audit failure is the result of an underlying failure to comply with the requirements of appropriate auditing standards. Auditing is limited by sampling, and particular misstatements and well-concealed frauds are extremely difficult to detect; there is always some risk that the audit will not uncover a material misstatement even when the auditor has complied with auditing standards.


6.. The Economic Factor


Whilst accounting is not a regulated profession, auditing is regulated, in that only persons who are registered company auditors are allowed to sign the audit reports of companies. The registration of company auditors is regulated by the Government Agencies, but the Government regulation is heavily supplemented by self-regulation by the Accounting Bodies and the big firms themselves. Hence the process is described as co-regulation.


It is extremely fragmented and such a system can only possibly work if there is very close co-operation and co-ordination between the various parties. However currently there is precious little openness, there is a general reluctance or legal inability to exchange information, and there is a considerable risk of serious issues falling into a hole between the parties. The big risk in a co-regulation scheme like the one the present system has is that no one is really in charge.


Besides, no degree of regulation will avoid or prevent these certainties although it may reduce the risk of recurrence of old problems. What is more, in an increasingly international world, regulation within any individual country cannot reduce the risks attendant on the auditors. Standards and practices of auditing and governance vary widely country to country. Consequently, the problems of auditing international groups remain and cannot be dealt with in a single country. Problems also arise from the higher levels of abstraction at which the auditors of global groups necessarily operate.


6.. Going concern assumption


Many of Enrons complex, related party transactions involved off-balance sheet financing arrangements guaranteed by Enrons stock. Additionally, the companys stock price depended on earnings growth and continued access to capital. Combined, these circumstances created a high-risk environment from an audit perspective. Going Concern (Issues SAS 5, The Auditors Consideration of an Entitys Ability to Continue as a Going Concern) requires the auditor to evaluate conditions or events discovered during the engagement that raise questions about the validity of the going-concern assumption. The auditor is not required to design specific audit procedures to identify such conditions and events. Instead, when evaluating the results of the overall audit, the auditor should consider whether certain conditions or events discovered during the course of the audit contradict the going-concern assumption. The projection of the going-concern concept is defined as not exceeding one year beyond the date of the audited financial statements. The current standard places the responsibility for identifying any exceptions to the going-concern assumption with the auditor.


Because a going-concern opinion may cause stockholders and creditors to lose confidence in the company and ratings agencies to downgrade the debt, leading to an inability to obtain new capital and an increase in the cost of existing capital, auditors are extremely cautious in giving such opinions. Because in most cases companies’ debt guarantees tied to its credit rating, a going-concern opinion will seal the companys fate even sooner.


If Andersen had included a going-concern paragraph in its opinion on Enrons 000 financial statements, its fate might have been very different. The above statement is also true in other cases of corporate failures. Auditors, however, cannot predict the future. Failure to issue a going-concern opinion is not sufficient evidence of an audit failure, and the absence of a going-concern qualification should not be viewed as providing assurance. Post-SAS 5 research shows that 40% to 50% of failed companies do not receive going-concern qualifications in the year immediately preceding bankruptcy. Of three recent high-profile bankruptcy filings-Enron, K-Mart, and Global Crossing-none received a going-concern opinion.


7. The Case for Independence


Everyone agrees that auditors need to be independent. The question is how to ensure independence without unnecessarily hamstringing other economic activity. On one level, of course, this type of consulting makes sense. Accounting firms know a lot about accounting; they ought to be good at telling companies how to set up their own internal procedures. There is not enough evidence, yet, that consulting is uniquely responsible for the recent well-publicized auditing failures. In the infamous case of Microstrategy, whose stock collapsed from a high of $0 per share to around $ per share in the wake of earnings restatements, the accountants did not appear to have a significant consulting relationship with the company. Nonetheless, they signed off on financial statements that were largely works of fiction.


The chief of Andersen, Mr Joseph Berardino, has come out with a revealing statement, a virtual mea culpa about his firm’s role in the disaster. While he has tried to take cover under an alleged warning that his firm issued to Enron’s audit committee about the possible flaws in its complicated accounting structure, he has been categorical in his criticism of Enron, although he maintained his view that the whole system of self-regulation and discipline of auditing as a profession needed to be improved.


7.1. Incentive for independence


Auditors are paid by their clients. Theoretically, if Arthur Andersen wont let a client book the latest contract the way it wants to, the client can fire them and hire Ernst and Young. But there are real barriers to shopping for auditors. First, it makes investors nervous. Second, because auditing is ongoing, there are huge costs associated with axing one set of auditors and inserting another. Finally, there are not an endless number of accounting firms that can handle Americas largest and most profitable companies. Changing auditors is hard, and so companies have an incentive to listen when their accountants bring bad news.


7.. Market’s self-healing process


A new survey of some 50 asset managers and analysts, conducted by public relations firm Citigate Dewe Rogerson in the USA, revealed that almost 5 percent of the respondents believe investors might have concerns about companies that purchase consulting services from their auditors.


More worrisome, over a third of that group felt investors will, in fact, discount the share prices of such companies. Further, a number of the asset managers and analysts in the survey believe the even the perception of a conflict of interest between a corporations auditor and consultants could cause investors to apply a discount to that companys stock price.


This survey proves that the market will activate its self-healing process to rectify the problem. Many of the Anderson’s client have severed ties with Anderson to restore the confidence in their audited report.


8. Steps taken to restore confidence


Assurance service is a highly lucrative franchise for accounting firms. If accountants want to keep this license to make money, it is not unreasonable to impose structural limits on their other businesses. There are several practices that are especially problematic. First, linking auditors pay to consulting fees seems like the most straightforward sort of conflict. The press has widely reported that Andersens accounting partners received bonuses in proportion to how much consulting work was done. Those arrangements should be flatly illegal auditors cant be in the position of selling consulting services.


The Security and Exchange Commission in the USA has proposed to ban auditors from also performing internal audits for audit clients. It stated that ... performing an internal audit function results in the auditor assuming a management function and, during the audit, relying on a system that the auditor has helped to establish or maintain. Thus, performing internal audits violates at least two of the four key factors the commission identified as impairing an auditors independence -- functioning as management of the audit client and auditing the accounting firms own work -- and possibly a third, having a mutual interest with the audit client.


The International Federation of Accountants (IFAC) ethics committee, in its recent exposure draft on independence, also focused on the issue of auditor independence. The draft proposes a move to a conceptual framework requiring the identification and evaluation of threats to independence and the application of safeguards to reduce any threats to an acceptable level. Threats to independence include self-interest, self-review (for example, providing both non-assurance and assurance function), advocacy (for example, dealing or promoting shares in an assurance client), intimidation and familiarity. Mitigation of such threats may require resignation or refusal of the assurance engagement. This IFAC exposure draft recommends a more rigorous assessment of independence, supported by appropriate evidence.


In response to all the media fuss over auditor independence, around July 001 the Federal Government in Australia appointed Professor Ian Ramsay of Melbourne University to perform an enquiry on Auditor Independence and to make recommendations for reform of the independence rules Professor Ramsay received submissions from the big firms and other interested groups, and issued his report in October 001. In view of the amount of work that had been done in connection with the development of the IFAC independence rules, Professor Ramsay had little choice but to endorse these rules, which at the time of his report were still in exposure draft from.


. Conclusion


There are two certainties, which must not be ignored. One of them is that corporate failure will inevitably happen particularly when a period of economic difficulty follows a bull market. In a proportion of the failures, it will be shown that managements made unwise assumptions about the future prospects of their business. In others it will be shown that managements ignored or obscured the evidence of trading difficulty. In either event, second certainty is that when there is a spate of corporate failures, then auditors as individuals and as a group will be blamed or, at least, questioned.


Though some of the most publicized corporate collapse as stated above have repeatedly pointed fingers to auditors because they had gone beyond their professional capacity and thus had been hold responsible in the failure of their professional duty, but it does not in any way undermine the importance of assurance service nor the role of auditors. Perhaps, investors need to be reminded of one important thing is that the audited financial statements are an insufficient basis for financing decisions . They need to be aware of the inherent limitations on the audit process and the fact that an audit is essentially a broad professional opinion rather than a precise verification of the figures provided by the company management. While some corrective actions in the form of promulgating new regulations or strict implementations of code of conduct will restore the public confidence in the assurance service, but it will not be the panacea of preventing corporate collapse. Of course, the main responsibility lies with the management of any company and the investors must need to understand that.





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Mise en Scene In The Opening Scenes Of Jurassic Park

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Mise-en-scene in the opening scenes of


Jurassic Park, 1


Dir; Steven Spielberg


Mise-en-scene, put simply, refers to everything we see in a frame. It can be broken down into the following categories; setting, costume and make up, props, lighting, figure movements and special. Each element is chosen for a reason, to convey a particular meaning or message. In this essay I will analyze the mise-en-scene in the opening scenes of Jurassic Park.


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Jurassic Park opens with a shot of trees, somewhere in the jungle. Behind the foliage bright lights can be seen as a large crane moves through the jungle destroying the trees, nature is being disturbed by man. This sets up a theme, which runs throughout the entire film, man vs. nature.


The name of an island appears along the bottom of the screen. It is an island that no one will ever have heard of, but it states where it is close to. This unknown element allows us to believe that strange events could happen here and we wouldn’t know, but the second line telling us where the island is close to adds a sense of reality.


The next shot is of men standing in a clearing. They are wearing a uniform including ID badges and hard hats and their clothes are dusty. These indicate large, controlled operation, and that they work outdoors and in a rough environment, or there is some kind of danger. Figure movements are slow and ordered implying that there is no reason for them to panic and they appear relaxed, like they do this kind of thing regularly. However they are carrying guns, which would indicate some kind of danger.


The buildings behind the men are modern and made of concrete. They look out of place in the jungle environment; it is man intruding on nature. The cage containing a dinosaur connotes man trying to control nature. There are many men but there is only one dinosaur showing that the dinosaur shows that the dinosaur must be.


When the dinosaur escapes the cage the lighting changes from a steady stream of light to darkness with flashing lights. Figure movement become fast and panicked, giving a sense of urgency and danger. There is a shot of the dinosaur’s eye through the cage, which cuts immediately to a shot of one of the men’s eyes. It gives a sense of fear and likeness, that the dinosaur is not that much different from the man, they are both scared.


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max dupain

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on max dupain. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality max dupain paper right on time.

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Max Dupain


Born April , 111


Died July 7, 1


“Max Dupains has had an extraordinary photographic legacy, spanning over six decades; he is one of Australia’s most celebrated photographers.” ()


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Dupain’s interest in photography developed while he was an apprentice at the commercial art studio, under commercial photographer Cecil Bostock. Around that time there was an emphasis on painterly, soft-hued romanticism. He was one of the first to break out of that tradition and convert to the new photography from Europe, which used sharp focus, strong light and unusual perspectives to capture the modern era.” ()


In 14 Dupain established his own commercial studio in Bond Street, Sydney and specialised in advertising, still life and portraiture. When the Second World War came Dupain served as a photographer. While Dupain was away Olive Cotton, a fellow photographer ran and managed the studio. Upon his return to studio work in 147, he de-emphasized picturesque landscapes and portraiture in favour of the more abstract architectural and industrial imagery, this established him as one of Australias most significant Modernist photographers. ()


Dupain continued to operate the commercial studio from Sydneys lower north shore until his death in 1. Eric Sierins worked as a photographer with Max Dupain from 18 to 1, and continues to manage Max Dupain and Associates today. ()


Throughout his long career, Dupain remained an adherent of black and white photography. A fascinated observer of his fellow Australians, he captured both friends and anonymous faces in the crowd with consummate skill. He was one of Australias most eminent photographers. ()


During his long and distinguished career Max Dupain took thousands of photographs of people. A majority of his photographs from the 10s and 140s mostly includes portraits of dancers, actresses and classical musicians as well as ordinary Australians; these reflect his bold, stylish approach. (). Max Dupain is identical with the ascendancy and acceptance of modern photography in Australia. Although he is more widely recognised for his beach scenes and documentary photography, a great example of this is ‘The Sunbaker’.


“Sunbaker” 17


This is one of his best-known images. He took this famous shot, while he was on holiday at Culburra, on the New South Wales South Coast in 17; this was a year of popular optimism before the War.


The sunbaker is completely relaxed he is at one with the land as he is scorched on white-hot sand. He lies with his back exposed to the sun, the diamond-dazzle seawater and sweat sparkling on his skin. Dupain used a low-angle shot, which transforms the simple shapes of this oval head and triangular torso into a mountain-like outcrop set against the horizon.


This image was inspired by the work of European modernist photographers, who were more interested in exploring abstract form than in making descriptive photographs. Over the years Sunbaker has become a national image. The straightforwardness of the figure replaces the clich�s of athletic masculine imagery that was around before the 140’s.


The light in this photograph has a very strong light above the subject. This light makes the bronze skin of the man glow around the arms where the muscles are bulging toward the sky. There is a very light tonal quality in the sky and in the foreground. The sea on the horizon is barely visible; but it has a slightly darker tonal quality to the sand below and the sky above. There are lots of beautiful dark tones on the skin. His head hair is very dark; it is black in the shadow.


Space There’s a lot of space in the fore ground, but a small amount above the subject; this lets the figure sit neatly in the top third of the photograph.


The man is nicely placed in the photograph; a feeling of isolation is present. The man’s right arm is thrown forward in the front of his left; this enhances his right shoulder blade at the top of the photograph. It sticks out a little more than the other. He looks like he’s crawling toward the camera.


The man lies on the beach comfortably on a hot summers day. He has his back to the elements and the sun. Strong light from above makes the seawater on his dark bronze skin glow around his shoulders. The vast amount of space that is in the foreground has a light tonal quality, and the sky behind him has darker qualities.





1 http//sunday.ninemsn.com.au/sunday/art_profiles/article_14.asp


http//www.sl.nsw.gov.au/exhibitions/max_dupain/


http//www.portrait.gov.au/content/exhibit/dupain





The photography I understand best and enjoy practising most is using the camera in a simple way and for the propose of recording what the keenest eye can see. Dupain


Finally some day I hope I shall be able to look back and witness the fact that my work has been a contribution in helping to elevate photography from the trivial to the significant. Dupain


Dupain’s images, including many portraits especially of the 10s to 160s, have stamped the public image of this era of rapid progress and increasing cultural sophistication in Australia. Gael Newton


As a schoolboy camera enthusiast Dupain’s photography comprised mostly impressionistic romantic landscapes, some unremarkable still life studies and only the occasional portrait of family and friends. Gael Newton


Few of Dupain’s later portraits truly rival those made before the late 160s, when he began to specialise in what he called his ‘long suit’ � a love affair with modern architecture. In this author’s experience, Dupain’s ability to work with the environment and the moment were undimmed in the 180s. Gael Newton


Max always said he thought taking pictures of people was a damn sight more difficult than architecture, for example � at least the building stayed put and you werent required to talk to it! (1)











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EDGAR ALLAN POE; A TRAGIC LIFE

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EDGAR ALLAN POE A TRAGIC LIFE


Unlike many other American writers, Edgar Allan Poe had a tragic life from the moment he was born to the end he died.


His parents were traveling actors and both passed away before he was two. Edgar Allan Poe was adopted by a wealthy family in Richmond, Virginia, where he got his family name Allan. This is his fortunate and unfortunate. On one hand, he met kind foster parents, who offered him well education and sufficient love. On the other hand, he could never adjust himself to the southern gentry because of both his lonely characteristic and his incomprehensible imagination talent.


Perhaps he was over-indulged by Mr. Allan, had no restraining influence in the early years, Perhaps his self-identity was so strong that he made himself wandering outside the society. Edgar Allan Poe seemed to be a loser in everything


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¡°When he was seventeen, he entered the University of Virginia. He stayed in the University only one year. In some studies he showed remarkable ability but he gambled and drank, and ran deeply into debt. Mr. Allan, his foster-father, refused to pay his gambling debts and took him from the University. He was placed in a counting room in Richmond, but finding the work most distasteful, he soon broke away and went to Boston.¡±


¡°After a brief enlistment in the army, Poe accepted an appointment to West Point, which Allan had helped to arrange. Poe was discharged less than a year later.¡±


¡°The next few years were spent in wandering from place to place and in attempting newspaper work.¡±


There are two things that certainly contributed to his shameful experiences gambling and drinking. These were common things in English gentleman at that time, but Poe was neither rich nor health enough. Instead, he lived in poverty all his life and died of drinking.


Above all, Edgar Allan Poe was brilliant, clever, and imaginary. His story ¡°Mr. Found in a Bottle¡± won the first prize in a contest. Poe brought his obsession with the irrational side of the mind into writing and created a new kind of poem that never appeared in America. His poem soon became popular. Poe¡¯s interest in the power of reason developed some tales of nightmare terror. He influenced many writers especially in France, and was respected as a pioneer in poetic and fictional techniques. Poe also showed true talents as an editor and a literary critic.


Edgar Allan Poe had several happy years with Mrs. Maria Clemm and her daughter Virginia in Baltimore. He thrived in an atmosphere of love and later married Virginia at her age of 1.


¡°He seemed to have two personalities, one which he showed to those whom he loved, and one which he kept for the world. His best traits were brought out in his associations with these two beloved women of his household, for with them he was patient, chivalrous, and devoted.¡±


¡°The last thirteen years of his life were years of opportunities wasted. He slipped back into his old habit of drinking and gambling and lost his hand in hand with him. Virginia developed tuberculosis and even though Mrs. Clemm kept boarders to help eke out an existence, things went from bad to worse. Virginia died in abject poverty warm. Poe was heart-broken. Two years later he, too, died.¡±


¡°Like so much else about the man, many of the circumstances surrounding his death remain a mystery. He had traveled to Richmond to make arrangement for his marriage to a widow, Mrs. A. B. Shelton. On the return trip to New York, he stopped in Baltimore to visit some friends. A common theory is that, arriving in the city on election day, he fell into the hand of political hoodlums who got him drunk and him as voter in dishonest election practices. Whatever had occurred, on October Poe was found in a tavern in a drunken and desperately ill condition. He died four days later.


¡°Tate says,¡¯Poe is not interested in anything that is alive. Everything is Poe is dead the houses, the rooms, the furniture¡­¡¯¡±


¡°His theme was frequently death and a gloom and melancholy overshadow all his poems, but nevertheless his verse is of great beauty. He stands alone in the characteristics of his writings. Other poets reflected their environment, their inheritance, the social tendencies of the hour, and the spirit of the times, himself. They should be read not to be read not to be wholly understood for that is impossible, but for the beauty they express and the melodious tones of their lines. England considers him our greatest poet.¡±








PROSE AND POETRY OF AMERICA, H.WARD McGRAW.A.M, THE L.W. SINCERCONMPANY, 17-18


HISTORY AND ANTHOLOGY OF AMERICAN LITERATURE (VOLUME 1), WEIREN WU, FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING AND RESEARCH PRESS,11


AMERICAN LITERATURE THE MAKERS AND THE MAKING (VOLUME 1), CLEANTH BROOKS R. W. B. LEWIS ROBERT PENN WARREN, ST. MARTIN¡¯S PRESS NEW YORK, 61


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cloudstreeet

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Cloudstreet is a contemporary drama adapted by Nick Enright from Tim Winton’s popular novel of the same name. Set pre and during WWII, the story explores the lives of two families, the Pickles and the Lambs, who share an old, dilapidated house in Perth during World War Two. No. 1 Cloud Street brings the two families together.


Cloudstreet examines the lives of ordinary people through extraordinary events; the play serves as an examination of Perth in the aftermath of the WWII, and the events in Perth represent post-war Australia. The play deals with the themes such as family, rites of passage, pain of growing up and the confusion of failing in love for the first time. Other issues explored include the role of women, gambling. Many parallels can be drawn from society at that time to society today.


The Lambs family has a retarded son, Fish. He was trapped in a fishing-net on a family picnic, drowned then came back to life. Unfortunately, as his brother Quick saw almost immediately, not all of him came back, leaving Fish retarded and touched by a longing for the Big Country he glimpsed beyond the water.


The Pickles believe in luck, and hopes for their lucky star. Sam Pickles is an addicted gambler while his wife Dolly is a sexually promiscuous alcoholic. Rose, their only child, is left to fend for herself and bring up both her parents.


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This odd mix of characters provides for surprise and sorrow throughout the play. Through three generations the audience is encouraged to empathise with them; the house breathes and changes with them. And at the conclusion, the Pickles and the Lambs stick together and ultimately fight for their own dreams. The protagonists in Cloudstreet are Rose Pickles and Fish Lamb.


Cloudstreet contains a range of non-naturalistic theatrical conventions and relies heavily on abstract elements, for example object transformations and lots of symbolism. The symbolism of the river and its role as a place where important events in the novel occur is also discussed.


The character of Fish Lamb was played extremely convincingly. The actor accurately portrayed the mentality and actions of a retarded child. Fish came across as an honest and gentle person genuinely needing care. The actor captured the loss, the pain and exasperation (sometimes) of a mentally retarded child. His dialogue was very appropriate, for instance asking seemingly pointless questions, like “I want to go back to the sea…the sea.”


Dolly was a hilarious character. The actor’s use of voice was good; she portrayed an alcoholic sex-ed up older-woman really well. Her dramatic makeup, extravagant dresses showed her personality. Dolly seems to have no boundaries when socialising with other characters, she seems to lose her sense of self-consciousness and does things on impulse. The actor used many gestures when she spoke. However, Dolly’s eagerness to engage in sexual activities was inappropriate for the young audience.


The costume was excellent; it set the atmosphere of the performance, and made it clear that the play is set in 150’s, and through costume changes, the audience realises that time flows on. Dolly’s sleazy dress indicates to the audience her personality was likewise; while Rose’s boyfriend’s business suit gave the audience clues to his personality.


Lighting was effective in creating the mood. The audience could tell from the bright lighting that things will turn out for the best. For example clouds silhouetted on the blue background enhanced the feeling of “hoping for a brighter future”.


The audience is required to imagine the setting of the house through gestures and dialogue. With minimal props consisting of a floor of sand with planks on top and a boat on the side, the audience has total concentration on the action on stage. Sparse, open spaces create a feeling of isolation and apprehension. And again reinforces our understanding of Fish and Rose’s desperation as their family support structure deteriorates.


I thought Cloudstreet was entertaining, and highly original. Cloudstreet is a play that requires a high level of understanding to fully appreciate it. The set design was ingenuous; it created suspense as to where the plot will take us next. The acting was outstanding; I especially admired the actors who played Fish and Dolly. The scene changes were very smooth, so there was no waiting time in between. The play was easy to follow, the dialogue was clear.The only fault is that Cloudstreet dragged on for too long; that made me lose patience. Overall, the cast pulled off a very dramatic and joyous play.





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Resistance

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Theory


What is resistance?


Electricity is conducted through a conductor, in this case wire, by means of free electrons. The number of free electrons depends on the material and more free electrons means a better conductor, i.e. it has less resistance. For example, gold has more free electrons than iron and, as a result, it is a better conductor. The free electrons are given energy and as a result move and collide with neighbouring free electrons. This happens across the length of the wire and thus electricity is conducted. Resistance is the result of energy loss as heat. It involves collisions between the free electrons and the fixed particles of the metal, other free electrons and impurities. These collisions convert some of the energy that the free electrons are carrying into heat.


How is it measured?


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The resistance of a length of wire is calculated by measuring the current present in the circuit (in series) and the voltage across the wire (in parallel). These measurements are then applied to this formula


V = I � R where V = Voltage, I = Current and R = Resistance


This can be rearranged to


R = V


I


Ohms Law


It is also relevant to know of Ohms Law, which states that the current through a metallic conductor (e.g. wire) at a constant temperature is proportional to the potential difference (voltage). Therefore V ¸ I is constant. This means that the resistance of a metallic conductor is constant providing that the temperature also remains constant. Furthermore, the resistance of a metal increases as its temperature increases. This is because at higher temperatures, the particles of the conductor are moving around more quickly, thus increasing the likelihood of collisions with the free electrons.


Variables


Input


Length of wire.


Material of wire.


Width of wire.


Starting temperature of wire.


Output


and thus the resistance of the wire. †








Voltage across wire.


Current in circuit.


Temperature of wire.


The variable marked with a will be varied, the other input variables will be kept constant. The output variable marked with a † will be measured.


Predictions


The longer the wire, the higher the resistance. This is because the longer the wire, the more times the free electrons will collide with other free electrons, the particles making up the metal, and any impurities in the metal. Therefore, more energy is going to be lost in these collisions (as heat).


Furthermore, doubling the length of the wire will result in double the resistance. This is because by doubling the length of the wire one is also doubling the collisions that will occur, thus doubling the amount of energy lost in these collisions.


Method


The following circuit was constructed to perform the investigation








wire








The two dots ( ) represent the crocodile clips that were placed at the ends of the required length of wire.


1. One metre length of 0.4mm diameter constantan (a metal alloy) wire is fixed to a metre rule.


. The first crocodile clip is clipped to the wire at the 0cm position on the metre rule.


. The second crocodile clip is clipped to the relevant position depending on the required length of wire.


4. The power supply is turned on. The voltage and current are then read off the ammeter and voltmeter, and recorded.


5. The power supply is then turned off and the second crocodile clip is moved to the next position.


The above steps are completed for each length and then the entire investigation is repeated for accuracy.


Rough Trials


In order to decide upon the voltage and lengths of wire to use in the final experiment, the following rough trials were carried out


At V


Length (cm)


Voltage (V)


Current (A)


Resistance (W) (to d.p.)





10


0.41


0.0


0.46





0


0.51


0.57


0.8





0


0.56


0.4


1.





40


0.60


0.


1.88





50


0.6


0.6


.4





60


0.64


0.


.78





70


0.65


0.0


.5





80


0.66


0.18


.67





0


0.67


0.16


4.1





100


0.68


0.15


4.5





At 5V


Length (cm)


Voltage (V)


Current (A)


Resistance (W) (to d.p.)





10


Could not be carried out as the wire simply melted.





0


.1


.07


1.0





0


.5


1.56


1.44





40


.4


1.4


1.88





50


.41


1.0


.6





60


.45


0.88


.78





70


.4


0.77


.





80


.5


0.68


.71





0


.54


0.6


4.10





100


.56


0.55


4.65





After performing these rough trials, it was decided that V would be used in the proper experiment, as it provided results from 10cm up to 100cm and the higher voltage provided no additional ease of measurement.


Furthermore, it was also decided to allow the wire to cool between experiments as considerable heat was noticed at lower lengths and, as mentioned above, an increase in temperature results in an increase in resistance. By allowing the wire to cool between experiments a fair test could be assured.


Safety


In order to perform a safe experiment, a low voltage of V was chosen so that overheating was minimilised. Furthermore, lengths lower than 10cm were not tried, which also helped to avoid overheating.





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