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Monday, October 22, 2012

Excerpt from "A White Heron"

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The excerpt by Sarah Orne Jewette offers a dramatization of a young heroine’s adventure, using literary elements, such as diction imagery, narrative pace, and point of view.


Jewette used a form of diction that allowed the simple act of climbing a tree seem like a bold and courageous escapade that, when complete, was a triumph of greatness. When Sylvia began to climb, the author said she began “with utmost bravery” and “with tingling, eager blood coursing through the channels of her whole frame.” Such phrases capture the readers’ attention and prepare them for an exciting event. Jewette allowed suspense to mount by describing Sylvia’s move from one tree to the next “There, when she made the dangerous pass from one tree to another, the great enterprise would really begin.” The anticipation grows for the next activity after Sylvia took that “daring step” into the so-called “great enterprise.” The author sets the stage for a magical experience by stating that the tree “must truly been amazed that morning through all its ponderous frame as it felt this determined spark of human spirit creeping and climbing from higher branch to branch.” Finally, Sylvia was “wholly triumphant, high in the tree top,” because she was able to see the wonders around her and think that she was surrounded by a “vast and awesome world.”


The images in the passage cause Sylvia’s climb to seem like an expedition that was completely isolated from human life, valiant, and wonderful at the same time. Because the images involve so many references to animals, human life seems nonexistent. For example, Jewette said Sylvia’s bare feet and fingers “pinched and held like a bird’s claw.” Similarly, Sylvia “was almost lost among the dark branches and green leaves heavy and wet with dew; a bird fluttered off its nest, and a red squirrel ran to and fro.” Here, the connection to animals is apparent in that even Sylvia is related to an animal. Her ascension appears valiant when the tree was portrayed as “a great main-mast to the voyaging earth.” Lastly, the scenery was explained in such a way that the experience seemed wonderful “Yes, there was the sea with the dawning sun making a golden dazzle over it and toward that glorious east flew two hawks with slow-moving pinions.”


The narrative pace of the excerpt slows and quickens in order to display different emotions. For example, the first paragraph trails off, which casts a slow, even wistful, pace and tone to Sylvia’s thoughts of the “great pine-tree.” In contrast, while Sylvia is climbing “up, up, almost to the sky itself” and making the pass from one tree to the other, the words seem to flow quicker, giving the illusion of excitement, and increasing anticipation for the reader. Yet, when the passage comes to an end, it reverts back to its slow pace, which seems soothing and relaxed. This pace allows the reader to more readily enjoy the scenery from Sylvia’s perspective.


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Because the story was told from Sylvia’s point of view, the readers were able to understand the pride that she felt more fully and appreciate nature more. Because the audience was able to feel the excitement, awe, and accomplishment that Sylvia felt, the excerpt included an in-depth meaning. For instance, although Sylvia is only a child, she appreciated the nature around her, and had no worries. Her main goal was to reach the top to see the view. Sylvia could value what most others take for granted. Although most of the story was told from Sylvia’s point of view, a small piece was transferred to the tree’s perspective, which made the girl’s trip up the tree appear powerful, because it could have thoughts and feelings.


In conclusion, Jewette used literary devices, such as diction, imagery, narrative pace, and point of view to dramatize the excerpt. She turned an everyday action of small child into dangerous expedition with a deeper meaning.





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Domination

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Children can be cruel and we as adults even crueler. [As children we play simple games that can amuse us for hours upon hours and seem so simple in theory. But as adults we play the same games and they become sick and twisted in nature. Pat Mora’s poem “La Migra” exemplifies this theory perfectly.]


Have you ever realized that kids tend to make up their own rules when playing their games? Such as the owner of a game has his/her own rules made only to give them the unfair advantage over everyone else. Or when someone’s over a friend’s house your friend always wins at everything just because they know all the good hiding spots, they know all the cheats and just plain dominate you and the game. When put through this situation, over a period of time the game becomes boring and you become angered and become vengeful. Pat Mora gives you both sides of the story, but shows the advantages and disadvantages of both the border control officer and the illegally immigrating woman. For example the officer says “you can’t get away because I have a jeep”(lines 6-7), “don’t ask questions because I don’t speak Spanish” (lines -11), “don’t complain too much because I have boots and kick” (lines 1-15), and “oh, and a gun” (line 17). But likewise the woman has advantages of her own, “your jeep has a flat, and you’ve been spotted by the sun” (lines -4), “I know the desert, where to rest, where to drink. Oh, I am not alone” (lines 7-0), and “Agua dulce brota aqui, aqui, aqui, but since you don’t speak Spanish, you do not understand” (lines -4).


To read this poem at face value wouldn’t be enough, there’s something else here that I don’t quite understand. When I read this poem the first thing that came to mind was the United States Government. We, as a nation, tend to want to dominate the world. It seems to me that all the government is worried about now a days is showing everyone and their mother that we are the big boys in town and no can mess with us. The battles we fight become less about instituting democracy and more about monarchy, and we are the kings to all our subsidiaries. We don’t fight to bring aid to those who need it, we fight to force our ways upon weaker nations. Its no longer “foreign aid” when we benefit from the outcome.


In her writing, Pat Mora shows us her opinion and her feelings on the matter, but its not so clear. To a first time reader it seems there is no reasoning behind the poem, after reading the poem several more times one can begin to see what the author’s feeling. It seems that as a child she was the kid who was always loosing games because of unfair advantages. But later in life she was the one who was conjuring up ways of giving her the advantages in life. Was she right or was she wrong in doing so?


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She shows two sides for a reason. She wants us to see that having the firepower or advantage doesn’t always cut it; you need to have knowledge of the language, terrain, and be well equipped for any and all kinds of climate. Weather she’s talking about fighting battles, or a government fixed on the domination of the world, or kids playing hide and go seek, she’s telling us to be knowledgeable about every situation. So you see as children we play simple games that can amuse us for hours upon hours and seem so simple in theory. But as adults we play the same games and they become complicated and have double meanings behind them.





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deperssion

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on deperssion. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality deperssion paper right on time.

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Depression


What is the definition of depression? Depression is a disturbance in mood characterized by varying degrees of sadness, disappointment, loneliness, hopelessness, self-doubt, and guilt. Most people tend to feel depressed at one time or another in their lives, but some people may experience these feelings more frequently or with deeper, more lasting, effects. In some cases, depression can last for months or even years. But does this definition truly relate to everyone?


I believe that everyone has his or her own definition of depression. Let me first start of by giving you my definition of depression. Depression to me is my pretty much what happens in my every day life. I wake up in my small apartment. I bathe myself with products I bought from the dollar store, I get dressed with my small selection of clothing. and I eat the food that I have, not because I like it but because it’s what I have to eat. I go to a job every day that is completely boring and allows me to use absolutely none of my creative abilities and I go to college and have absolutely no direction what so ever.


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I have a friend who always says that she is depressed; although when I look at her life I can’t see how she can be so miserable all the time. I mean she has a nice car, a decent job and always has enough money to buy expensive clothes. So I ask myself, what is it that makes her life filled with depression just like my own? So I compare our lives in hopes to determine, what is the true definition of depression? She has nice clothes, but I have a nice boyfriend. She spends time and money looking for a person to be with, when I make no effort at all and still wake up next to the same sexy guy everyday.


So what is depression? What does it mean to be depressed? Is being depressed not having someone to love? Is being depressed no having any money? Maybe I should be grateful that my definition of depression merely not having what I want. I think the true definition of depression is not being able to have the things that are necessary for basic survival. The poor people that are over in Ethiopia, lying in a small tent, infested with flies while dying from HIV and starvation. Are they ones that are truly depressed? Are they the ones that know the true definition of depression? I think so.


No matter what the situation is, being depressed can result of many things. Some which can be very stupid. For example someone could be depressed because he or she are not able to eat a chocolate sundae, or eat at McDonalds with the rest of their friend because of their weight issues. Someone could even be depressed because they want to be rich and live like a famous person.


There is so much more to the word depression than just being sad. It is a psychological state of emotional existence. It is an imbalanced of chemicals in ones mind and body causing discomfort. Only you could define the true definition of depression.





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Crossing the bridge

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“A witness is authorized to speak by having been present at an occurrence. A private experience enables a public statement. But the journey from experience (the seen) into words (the said) is precarious… It always involves an epistemological gap whose bridge is fraught with difficulty. No transfusion of consciousness is possible. Words can be exchanged, experiences cannot.”


In his essay published in the journal Media, Culture, and Society, John Durham Peters brings forth provocative realities about the role of a witness. As the above quote demonstrates, it is impossible to truly communicate the act of experiencing an event to an ignorant second party. The “bridge” between experience and words that Peters describes is one that our society has tried to form in many different fashions. We of course relate verbally; but we also take photographs, write stories, paint pictures, and videotape those experiences in our life that may be of significance to others or ourselves. The closer we can get to the event, the better. Visiting an actual holocaust survivor may be the best way to understand the ways of the Nazi regime. The ideal form of coverage the media can provide is “Eye Witness” News interviewing the clerk at a store that was robbed. The examples go on, but the obvious fact is that we tend to go to the source for information. In order to understand an occurrence we must get as “close” to the actual moment as possible.


In our study of history, a witness is a source possessing raw, authentic proximity to facts. Ideally, all history would be taught from these first-hand observers, but this of course is impossible. Naturally, we turn to the sources that go back lifetimes. War photography, Victorian portraits, and the first newspapers tell us of the past, texts taking us back the furthest. From ancient hieroglyphics to the bible, we see text as the most solid proof we can get about what happened years ago. Accordingly, it would make sense to assume that the most reliable form of text would come in the first-hand experience of the diary. For in order to re-create an experience as closely to reality as possible, one must remove the idea of a reader in the mind of the author. If one is writing for no one, with no one in mind, with no intentions other than to remember experiences for one’s own sake, where is the motive to alter what they see? Peters acknowledges the failures of any discourse of witness, however, and his essay brings one to ask the question of whether or not the seemingly simplistic act of journaling is even as reliable as it may appear.


To display the prominence of these failures in experience communication, Peters uses as an example the connotation of witnessing most generally thought of the witnessing of a crime. People are put on the stand to testify the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth as to what they saw, did, or heard. They may also be asked to relay their experience on paper. However, it is nearly impossible to keep personal beliefs, feelings, and state of mind out of one’s testimony. Even if they are truly relating exactly what they experienced, different people who witness the same event can produce remarkably divergent accounts. Not to mention the other type of divergence from truth, the intentional kind. Swearing on the Bible may be enough to ensure honesty in some people, but many others may feel no obligation to speak truthfully. Who’s to know what the author’s real intentions are? It is all too easy to alter a concrete fact in order to elicit certain responses in the receiver of the information. When it comes down to it, the only people who know if O.J. Simpson is really guilty of murder are the people who witnessed the crime and, as we all well know, relating experience orally does not always ensure justice. Although the camera has long been considered a device that does not lie, a photographer relays his state of mind through the lens just as an author through his book. Things can easily, intentionally or unintentionally, be left out of or added to a photo. The hand in which the camera lies has the power to personalize an experience as they wish. In this day and age, a photograph has also lost what credibility it once had as a truthful witness. Digital photography allows us to alter an image almost as easily as we alter our words. This is the precarious journey that Peters speaks of, and the unavoidable problem that is the unreliability of a witness.


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Diary chroniclers, on the other hand, have the supposed advantage of privacy and therefore little reason to diverge from the truth. They are representative of all types of people travelers, pilgrims, creators, apologists, confessors and prisoners. Some write to keep track of their memories, others write for spiritual development; or to spark or explore their art. There are those diarists who wish to confess or celebrate sins committed in life; still others, trapped in jails imposed by others or by their own limitations, use diaries to express frustrations with the world of their time. Whatever the motive, diaries are meant to be introspective. The author of a diary should be a witness with no desire to embellish, and therefore should serve as excellent sources for learning about events from the past.


Diaries and journals of early Americans, for example, are considered an honest, unembellished form -- a key to our understanding of the past. The words, often written by ordinary men and women, provide valuable clues as to how people lived. Perhaps most importantly, we are given insight into words and feelings of the historical witness that may have otherwise gone unrecorded because of social taboo. For example, in the 1700s, minister Jonathan Edwards kept detailed records of his duties and castigated himself for his spiritual failures. In a time where women were forbidden from speaking their minds and their daily lives were considered insignificant, their introspective diaries became the only record left for us of an inner life. In the 180s, Rebecca Cox Jackson, an African American slave, described in a diary her spiritual transformation. Her writing would later gain her the title of a religious visionary.


However, even the diary does not serve as the flawless bridge between experience and discourse that we are constantly searching for. Especially today, diary-writing has become a public activity. With the advent of the “weblog”, people chronicle their every-day life solely for the purpose of others logging on to read about it. What kind of twisted view of our society would a historian 100 years into the future have if he based his conclusions on the world of these diaries? Like the witness in court, underlying biases and purposes can also effect the diarist and the work they produce. Perhaps even in the diary not meant to be read the author could have motive or tendency towards embellishment�for example when recording a frightful event that one wishes to repress or deny.


Diaries are a wonderful resource for reflecting the forces -- economic, political, social and technological -- that have affected the lives of people throughout history. However, they must be taken with a grain of salt when looked upon for proximity to an event we wish to witness. Today, as in the past, most diarists are not well known. They may be students of history, literature, languages and the like; scientists and naturalists who note their discoveries and ideas; a multitude of others who write for their own spiritual or intellectual growth�and it is impossible to know the true purpose of their journaling. Still, the records we leave behind may serve as the most accurate testimony we can create to the times we witness. Peters was all too correct in his statement that no “transfusion of consciousness” exists, but we will continue to search for the best way to take the journey from the seen to the said.


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compare the ways in which poets tresent people in two scavengers in a truck and nothings changed.

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the morals of the two poems are pretty similar as they both study the issue of upper and lower class and the stereotypes that these are put into.


however the two are different in the way that one is just considering the rich/poor barrier and the other studies the barrier of racism between white and black people.


both poems end with the poorer people having the edge of either sarcasm or just the comfort that all poeple follow some of the same rules as the rest of the poorer world.


making the two poems very similar even though about completely differeny moral issues. in nothings changed the black man takes the mickey out of himself by steriotyping himself and in the other poem the poor people see themselves as equal too the rich and could probably achieve anything if they worked together. I never forgot to dress you;


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its just you were particular


about the feel of the cloth,


stating the simple annoyances.


You blamed me for decorating your


simple words. The hat you wore was


not as easy to pull off as it read


on the shiny label, recited to me in


common verse by your lips that never did know.


I knew this all too well.


You see, I never did forget to wrap you


in all of that precious warmth of


sensational memories. You were indecisive.


I gave you gloves to warm your hands.


Yet, the feel of throwing them around taught you


strength was easy to find. I tried to dress


you many times, but you were particular.


The rub of the cloth set you afire.


It was not easy to wear, but always kept


me warm to dress that wayAfraid to say but nothing has changed from the beginning of time to now Sir Francis drake is now Exxon Mobil. The one thing that has changed is that people dont really bother to pretend to have a concience. It seems quite fashionable to molest countries and not give a damn. S.As democracy related to pure numbers the USA was slower of the mark and only enforced sanctions to the point of keeping the African American vote for the ruling party. The middle east and our Muslim brothers in Malaysia were infact the real supporters of the stuggle. I mean Maggie Thatcher called Comrad Nelson Mandela a terrorist only +- 10 years ago. Bring back the old regime with one boss and we all follow him like the days of Shaka which made the Zulus a force that made the evil imperialists from the great white queens country do crappies in their nappies. The Oppenheimers running Anglo and Debeers and telling the market to stick it because they had more to lose than some little fund manager , analyst, reporter(who all new better bu


t somehow didnt have any loot to prove it) those were the days when we all did better. Market forces prove it ,% of the sheep in the market lose money.All the heros on the forumIm short , Im long derivatives and short in the boerie they all lose cash. sorry to say they would be better of spending more time at work earning a salary with no internet access because the boss says work. Im sorry its all gone along with world peace. Allah be praised


It was a day just like this


In a life of our times


Shrugging signs theres no chance for us


Its not mine to decide


You never listened to what I said


You never thought Id succeed


And though Ive given you all I can


You show no faith in me


Chorus


And I remember, And I recall


And I can see that nothings changed at all


Though we falter, we dont have to fall


And I can see that nothings changed at all


Even when I was young


And the pressure was on


You always told me to do my thing


So what the hell went wrong


Chorus


An outcast coming home, opinions stay the same


Theyll spit them out and spin me right back through the door


The louder we scream, the more invisible we seem


Is it gonna last forever


Now Im learning the lies


From the skies where they reign


Cant find shelter for myself


And youre all to blame


Chorus


Chorus





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Chaucer's Life Experiences

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Chaucer’s Life Experiences


A person’s life experience can have a great effect on his or her life. Personal experiences tend to have more of an effect on writers and storytellers than an average person. The average person will often tell and share a life experience to others. A writer, on the other hand, may make it very interesting and use it as an inspiration for one of his or her works. Take one of the greatest writers, Geoffrey Chaucer, for example. His life is known primarily through records pertaining to his career as a courtier and civil servant under the English kings Edward III and Richard II (David, Internet). Chaucer wrote The Canterbury Tales, because he was in adversity and under emotional stress. He began the work as an escape from the outward and inward pressures of his life. (David, Internet) Geoffrey Chaucer uses his life experiences as content for his works, “The Miller’s Tale,” “The Clerk’s Tale,” and “The Second Nun’s Tale.”


“The Miller’s Tale” relates to Chaucer’s life in a very distant way. Chaucers “Millers Tale” is one of the earliest sources we have that refers to the great medieval cycle plays--the civic drama performed in a number of cities. “The Millers Tale” deals with a man who has been exposed as a cuckold since he ignores his young wifes infidelities (Benson, Internet). In popular culture cuckolds were sometimes subjected to the ritual of ridicule known as the charivari, in which a group visits rough music or some other strong form of mockery on a chosen victim (Benson, Internet). In Chaucer’s “The Miller’s Tale,” there is a great amount of humor because he feels that he is not the ‘best’ when it comes to the topic of love, therefore he chooses to ridicule it (Howard 104). In Geoffrey’s time, sex and marriage belonged to everyone, but ‘love’ only belonged to the upper class (Howard 10). In “The Miller’s Tale” Chaucer tells that Absolon falls in love with a girl named Alisoun, thus proving that he was from an upper class, and she does not fall back in love with him. Alisoun tells Absolon that she is in love with her husband, Nicholas. Absolon “apes courtly conventions of song and poetry


and upper class mannerisms of ‘dalliance and fair language’ is uppity and affected. Alisoun was more a barnyard beauty than a courtly lady. (Benson, Internet) However, if she was a courtly lady she would have loved him back because that is how many women were in Chaucer’s age. (Howard 106) These ways of flirting are ridiculous because “he misuses courtly language in hilarious malapropisms” (Howard 10). Chaucer refers to himself as an outsider to love; this may be a part of the humor he uses.


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Chaucer did not seem to be a great fan of marriage even though he was a married man. There are many bitter stories of marriage in Chaucer’s tales, but they are stock comedy. In “The Clerk’s Tale” “there is patient Griselda bearing the yoke of her marriage to a sadistic husband- sympathetic aplenty to the woman’s side of marital woes, and not a


funny story, but one of immense pathos that could move readers, male readers, to tears.” (Howard 104) Many records of Chaucer’s marriage to his wife, Philippa, show that he was unhappy with it, and that he never really knew what true love was (Howard, 446). Chaucer wrote this to his friend Bukton, who was about to get married in his forties, “God grante you your life freely to leade / In freedom- for full hard it is to be bonde.” (Howard, 10) This may prove why, in many of Chaucer’s tales, marriage is being mocked or portrayed as terrible. Chaucer married well, and the marriage brought him advantages of status, connections, and annuities, but he was still unhappy (Howard, 5). Chaucer’s unhappy marriage makes him think that all marriages are bad, therefore he makes his stories to tell that they are (Harvard, Internet).


Chaucer was such a strong believer in heaven and God. Therefore, Chaucer put a few tales about nuns and other Godlike things in his famous works, The Canterbury Tales. “The Second Nun’s Tale’s” motivations come not from within, but from above (Howard 44). Chaucer based the story and life of St. Cecilia (from “Second Nun’s Tale”) on the Legenda aurea -- The Golden Legend -- by Jacobus de Voragine, one of the most widely read works, among both religious and laity, in the later Middle Ages (Kline, Internet). In this tale Chaucer inserts one moment that diverges from the strict Christian propaganda that this story represents, allowing moments of legitimate discussion of the Trinity (Ross, Internet). “The Second Nun’s Tale” stresses virginity and good works, like


in Chaucer’s time when virginity was a protected thing. Chaucer was a great author and because he used his life as content, his works really stand out due to his experiences.


Geoffrey Chaucer’s life plays a tremendous role in many of his works. The obvious works in which his life has effected are, “The Miller’s Tale”, “The Clerk’s Tale”, and “The Second Nun’s Tale”. Chaucer’s tales are much easier to read now, rather than having to break them down, like one had to do in the fifteenth century. In these three works, The Miller’s, Clerk’s, and Second Nun’s Tales all have something in common; their stories came from a story of Chaucer. Many people did not like Chaucer’s writing style because it was different and like nothing they had seen before. Many people were used to the usual Shakespeare-like stories and poems, the ones that were true and not very unusual. Chaucer characterized the world of story as a world unto itself that knows no bounds of language or of nation (Howard 448). In the end at his death Geoffrey Chaucer was unappreciated, and denied by the public, only later to be considered one of the greatest writers of all time (E.P. Dutton)





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As you like it


Rosalind - Rosalind dominates As You Like It. So fully realized is she in the complexity of her emotions, the subtlety of her thought, and the fullness of her character that no one else in the play matches up to her. Orlando is handsome, strong, and a bad but affectionate poet, yet still we feel that Rosalind settles for someone slightly less magnificent when she chooses him as her mate. Similarly, the observations of Touchstone and Jaques, who might shine more brightly in another play, seem rather dull whenever Rosalind takes the stage.


The endless appeal of watching Rosalind has much to do with her success as a knowledgeable and charming critic of herself and others. But unlike Jaques, who refuses to participate wholly in life but has much to say about the foolishness of those who surround him, Rosalind gives herself over fully to circumstance. She chastises Silvius for his irrational devotion to Phoebe, and she challenges Orlandos thoughtless equation of Rosalind with a Platonic ideal, but still she comes undone by her lovers inconsequential tardiness and faints at the sight of his blood. That Rosalind can play both sides of any field makes her identifiable to nearly everyone, and so, irresistible.


Rosalind is a particular favorite among feminist critics, who admire her ability to subvert the limitations that society imposes on her as a woman. With boldness and imagination, she disguises herself as a young man for the majority of the play in order to woo the man she loves and instruct him in how to be a more accomplished, attentive lover�a tutorship that would not be welcome from her as a woman. There is endless comic appeal in Rosalinds lampooning of the conventions of both male and female behavior, but an Elizabethan audience might have felt a certain amount of anxiety regarding her behavior. After all, the structure of a male-dominated society depends upon both men and women acting in their assigned roles. Thus, in the end, Rosalind dispenses with the charade of her own character. Her emergence as an actor in the Epilogue assures that theatergoers, like the Ardenne foresters, are about to leave a somewhat enchanted realm and return to the familiar world they left behind. But because they leave having learned the same lessons from Rosalind, they do so with the same potential to make that world a less punishing place


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No, faith; die by attorney. The poor world is almost six thousand years old, and in all this time there was not any man died in his own person, videlicet, in a love-cause. Troilus had his brains dashed out with a Grecian club, yet he did what he could to die before, and he is one of the patterns of love. Leander, he would have lived many a fair year though Hero had turned nun if it had not been for a hot midsummer night, for, good youth, he went but forth to wash him in the Hellespont and, being taken with the cramp, was drowned; and the foolish chroniclers of that age found it was Hero of Sestos. But these are all lies. Men have died from time to time, and worms have eaten them, but not for love. (IV.i.81�)


Here Rosalind-Explanation for Quotation


In Act IV, scene i, Rosalind rejects Orlandos claim that he would die if Rosalind should fail to return his love. Rosalinds insistence that “[m]en have died from time to time, and worms have eaten them, but not for love” is one of the most recognizable lines from the play, and perhaps the wisest (IV.i.1�). Here, Rosalind takes on one of the most dominant understandings of romantic love, an understanding that is sustained by mythology and praised in literature, and insists on its unreality. She holds to the light the stories of Troilus and Leander, both immortal lovers, in order to expose their falsity. Men are, according to Rosalind, much more likely to die by being hit with a club or drowning than in a fatal case of heartbreak. Rosalind does not mean to deny the existence of love. On the contrary, she delights in loving Orlando. Instead, her criticism comes from an unwillingness to let affection cloud or warp her sense of reality. By casting aside the conventions of the standard�and usually tragic�romance, Rosalind advocates a kind of love that belongs and can survive in the real world that she inhabits.


It is not the fashion to see the lady the epilogue; but it is no more unhandsome than to see the lord the prologue. If it be true that good wine needs no bush, tis true that a good play needs no epilogue. Yet to good wine they do use good bushes, and good plays prove the better by the help of good epilogues. What a case am I in then, that am neither a good epilogue nor cannot insinuate with you in the behalf of a good play! I am not furnished like a beggar, therefore to beg will not become me. My way is to conjure you; and Ill begin with the women. I charge you, O women, for the love you bear to men, to like as much of this play as please you. And I charge you, O men, for the love you bear to women�as I perceive by your simpering none of you hates them� that between you and the women the play may please. If I were a woman I would kiss as many of you as had beards that pleased me, complexions that liked me, and breaths that I defied not. And I am sure, as many as have good beards, or good faces, or sweet breaths will for my kind offer, when I make curtsy, bid me farewell. (Epilogue, 1�1). [Explanation]


Rosalind says -Explanation for Quotation 5


The Epilogue was a standard component of Elizabethan drama. In it, one actor remains onstage after the play has ended in order to ask the audience for the favor of its applause. As Rosalind herself notes, it is exceedingly odd that she has been chosen to deliver the Epilogue, as that task is usually assigned to a male character. By the time she addresses the audience directly, Rosalind has discarded her Ganymede disguise. She is, once again, a woman, and she has married a man. Although we may think that the potentially troubling play of gender has come to an end with the fall of the curtain, we must remember that women were forbidden to perform onstage in Shakespeares England. Thus, Rosalind would have been played by a man, which further obscures the boundaries of gender and sexuality. Rosalind emerges as a man who pretends to be a woman who pretends to be a man who pretends to be a woman in order to win the love of a man. When the actor solicits the approval of the men in the audience, he says, “If I were a woman I would kiss as many of you as had beards that pleased me”�thus returning us to the dizzying intermingling of homosexual and heterosexual affections that govern life in the Forest of Ardenne (Epilogue, 14�16). The theater, like Ardenne itself, is an escape from reality where the wonderful, sometimes overwhelming complexities of human life can be witnessed, contemplated, enjoyed, and studied.


Rosalind - The daughter of Duke Senior. Rosalind, considered one of Shakespeares most delightful heroines, is independent minded, strong-willed, good-hearted and terribly clever. Rather than slink off into defeated exile, Rosalind resourcefully uses her trip to the Forest of Ardenne as an opportunity to take control of her own destiny. When she disguises herself as #HYPERLINK javascriptCharacterWindow(http//www.sparknotes.com/shakespeare/asyoulikeit/stfm/symbol_E..html, 857f60f0b, 500);Ganymede, a handsome young man, and offers herself as a tutor in the ways of love to her beloved Orlando, Rosalinds talents and charms are on full display. Only Rosalind, for instance, is both aware of the foolishness of romantic love and delighted to be in love. She teaches those around her to think, feel, and love better than they have previously, and ensures that the courtiers returning from Ardenne are far gentler than those who fled to it.


Rosalind dominates As You Like It. So fully realized is she in the complexity of her emotions, the subtlety of her thought, and the fullness of her character that no one else in the play matches up to her. Orlando is handsome, strong, and a bad but affectionate poet, yet still we feel that Rosalind settles for someone slightly less magnificent when she chooses him as her mate. Similarly, the observations of Touchstone and Jaques, who might shine more brightly in another play, seem rather dull whenever Rosalind takes the stage.


The endless appeal of watching Rosalind has much to do with her success as a knowledgeable and charming critic of herself and others. But unlike Jaques, who refuses to participate wholly in life but has much to say about the foolishness of those who surround him, Rosalind gives herself over fully to circumstance. She chastises Silvius for his irrational devotion to Phoebe, and she challenges Orlandos thoughtless equation of Rosalind with a Platonic ideal, but still she comes undone by her lovers inconsequential tardiness and faints at the sight of his blood. That Rosalind can play both sides of any field makes her identifiable to nearly everyone, and so, irresistible.


Rosalind is a particular favorite among feminist critics, who admire her ability to subvert the limitations that society imposes on her as a woman. With boldness and imagination, she disguises herself as a young man for the majority of the play in order to woo the man she loves and instruct him in how to be a more accomplished, attentive lover�a tutorship that would not be welcome from her as a woman. There is endless comic appeal in Rosalinds lampooning of the conventions of both male and female behavior, but an Elizabethan audience might have felt a certain amount of anxiety regarding her behavior. After all, the structure of a male-dominated society depends upon both men and women acting in their assigned roles. Thus, in the end, Rosalind dispenses with the charade of her own character. Her emergence as an actor in the Epilogue assures that theatergoers, like the Ardenne foresters, are about to leave a somewhat enchanted realm and return to the familiar world they left behind. But because they leave having learned the same lessons from Rosalind, they do so with the same potential to make that world a less punishing place.


Celia


Celia - The daughter of Duke Frederick and Rosalinds dearest friend. Celias devotion to Rosalind is unmatched, as evidenced by her decision to follow her cousin into exile. To make the trip, Celia assumes the disguise of a simple shepherdess and calls herself Aliena. As elucidated by her extreme love of Rosalind and her immediate devotion to Oliver, whom she marries at the end of the play, Celia possesses a loving heart, but is prone to deep, almost excessive emotions


The Merchant of Venice


Portia (In-Depth Analysis)


Quick-witted, wealthy, and beautiful, Portia embodies the virtues that are typical of Shakespeares heroines, and it is no surprise that she emerges as the antidote to Shylocks malice. At the beginning of the play, however, we do not see Portias potential for initiative and resourcefulness, as she is a near prisoner, feeling herself absolutely bound to follow her fathers dying wishes. This opening appearance, however, proves to be a revealing introduction to Portia, who emerges as that rarest of combinations�a free spirit who abides rigidly by rules. Rather than ignore the stipulations of her fathers will, she watches a stream of suitors pass her by, happy to see these particular suitors go but sad that she has no choice in the matter. When Bassanio arrives, however, Portia proves herself to be highly resourceful, begging the man she loves to stay a while before picking a chest, and finding loopholes in the wills provision that we never thought possible. In her defeat of Shylock, too, Portia prevails by applying a more rigid standard than Shylock himself, agreeing that his contract very much entitles him to his pound of flesh, but adding that it does not allow for any loss of blood. Anybody can break the rules, but Portias effectiveness comes from her ability to make the law work for her.


Portia rejects the stuffiness that rigid adherence to the law might otherwise suggest. In her courtroom appearance, she vigorously applies the law, but still flouts convention by appearing disguised as a man. After depriving Bassanio of his ring, she stops the prank before it goes to far, but still takes it far enough to berate Bassanio and Graziano for their callousness, and even insinuates that she has been unfaithful.


Quote from Portia-


The quality of mercy is not strained.


It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven


Upon the place beneath. . . .


. . .


It is enthronèd in the hearts of kings;


It is an attribute to God himself,


And earthly power doth then show likest Gods


When mercy seasons justice. Therefore, Jew,


Though justice be thy plea, consider this


That in the course of justice none of us


Should see salvation. We do pray for mercy,


And that same prayer doth teach us all to render


The deeds of mercy.


(IV.i.17�17


Explanation-


Explanation for Quotation 4


Even as she follows the standard procedure of asking Shylock for mercy, Portia reveals her skills by appealing to his methodical mind. Her argument draws on a careful process of reasoning rather than emotion. She states first that the gift of forgiving the bond would benefit Shylock, and second, that it would elevate Shylock to a godlike status. Lastly, Portia warns Shylock that his quest for justice without mercy may result in his own damnation. Although well-measured and well-reasoned, Portias speech nonetheless casts mercy as a polarizing issue between Judaism and Christianity. Her frequent references to the divine are appeals to a clearly Christian God, and mercy emerges as a marker of Christianity. Although it seems as if Portia is offering an appeal, in retrospect her speech becomes an ultimatum, a final chance for Shylock to save himself before Portia crushes his legal arguments.


The Tempest


Miranda - Just under fifteen years old, Miranda is a gentle and compassionate, but also relatively passive, heroine. From her very first lines she displays a meek and emotional nature. O, I have suffered / With those that I saw suffer! she says of the shipwreck (I.ii.5�6), and hearing Prosperos tale of their narrow escape from Milan, she says I, not remembring how I cried out then, / Will cry it oer again (I.ii.1�14). Miranda does not choose her own husband. Instead, while she sleeps, Prospero sends Ariel to fetch Ferdinand, and arranges things so that the two will come to love one another. After Prospero has given the lovers his blessing, he and Ferdinand talk with surprising frankness about her virginity and the pleasures of the marriage bed while she stands quietly by. Prospero tells Ferdinand to be sure not to break her virgin-knot before the wedding night (IV.i.15), and Ferdinand replies with no small anticipation that lust shall never take away the edge of that days celebration (IV.i.). In the plays final scene, Miranda is presented, with Ferdinand, almost as a prop or piece of the scenery as Prospero draws aside a curtain to reveal the pair playing chess.


But while Miranda is passive in many ways, she has at least two moments of surprising forthrightness and strength that complicate the readers impressions of her as a naïve young girl. The first such moment is in Act I, scene ii, in which she and Prospero converse with Caliban. Prospero alludes to the fact that Caliban once tried to rape Miranda. When Caliban rudely agrees that he intended to violate her, Miranda responds with impressive vehemence, clearly appalled at Calibans light attitude toward his attempted rape. She goes on to upbraid him for being ungrateful for her attempts to educate him When thou didst not, savage, / Know thine own meaning, but wouldst gabble like / A thing most brutish, I endowed thy purposes / With words that made them known (58�61). These lines are so surprising coming from the mouth of Miranda that many editors have amended the text and given it to Prospero. This reattribution seems to give Miranda too little credit. In Act III, scene i comes the second surprising moment�Mirandas marriage proposal to Ferdinand I am your wife, if you will marry me; / If not, Ill die your maid (III.i.8�84). Her proposal comes shortly after Miranda has told herself to remember her fathers precepts (III.i.58) forbidding conversation with Ferdinand. As the reader can see in her speech to Caliban in Act I, scene ii, Miranda is willing�to the furthest extent she can�to speak up for herself in matters of her sexuality.


Miranda’s quote


[I weep] at mine unworthiness, that dare not offer


What I desire to give, and much less take


What I shall die to want. But this is trifling,


And all the more it seeks to hide itself


The bigger bulk it shows. Hence, bashful cunning,


And prompt me, plain and holy innocence.


I am your wife, if you will marry me.


If not, Ill die your maid. To be your fellow


You may deny me, but Ill be your servant


Whether you will or no (III.i.77�86)


Explanation


Explanation for Quotation


Miranda delivers this speech to Ferdinand in Act III, scene i, declaring her undying love for him. Remarkably, she does not merely propose marriage, she practically insists upon it. This is one of two times in the play that Miranda seems to break out of the predictable character she has developed under the influence of her fathers magic. The first time is in Act I, scene ii, when she upbraids Caliban for his ingratitude to her after all the time she has spent teaching him to speak. In the speech quoted above, as in Act I, scene ii, Miranda seems to come to a point at which she can no longer hold inside what she thinks. It is not that her desires get the better of her; rather, she realizes the necessity of expressing her desires. The naïve girl who can barely hold still long enough to hear her fathers long story in Act I, scene ii, and who is charmed asleep and awake as though she were a puppet, is replaced by a stronger, more mature individual at this moment. This speech, in which Miranda declares her sexual independence, using a metaphor that suggests both an erection and pregnancy (the bigger bulk trying to hide itself), seems to transform Miranda all at once from a girl into a woman.At the same time, the last three lines somewhat undercut the power of this speech Miranda seems, to a certain extent, a slave to her desires. Her pledge to follow Ferdinand, no matter what the cost to herself or what he desires, is echoed in the most degrading way possible by Caliban as he abases himself before the liquor-bearing Stefano. Ultimately, we know that Ferdinand and Miranda are right for one another from the fact that Ferdinand does not abuse the enormous trust Miranda puts in him.





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“Accountants see control as a solution; sociologists see it as a problem. What factors do you see as being essential to the successful implementation of budgeting in an organisation?”

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I will begin by giving a brief introduction to what budgeting is;


“A budget is a formal written statement of management’s plans for a specified period of time, expressed in financial terms. It charts the course for future action. Budgeting embraces both accounting and management functions. It is a management function because it is a plan, which will be used to assist in managing the operation. Budgeting requires management to plan for decision making, establishing objectives, and setting priorities. Budgeting is also an accounting function because the plans are translated into financial terms. Probably no other instrument contributes more directly to effective management than a budget.” http//www.nfsmi.org


Budgets will set out specific targets dealing with


· Capital receipts and payments


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· Sales, broken down into amounts and prices for each of the products or services the business provides


· Comprehensive stock requirements


· Comprehensive labour requirements


· Precise production requirements


Clearly the relationship between objectives, long-term plans and budgets is that the objectives once set are likely to remain for a considerable period of time, perhaps the remainder of the business’ life. Also a series of long term plans identifies how the objectives are to be executed, and budgets state how such plans are to be carried out.


The success of the budgeting process depends on the following essential elements


· Accurate forecasting of business activities- Forecasting future activities is a pre-requisite for the success of a budget


· Co-ordinating business activities and communicating the budgeted plans to concerned parties- There must be good co-ordination among various departments budgets. As a part of the co-ordination, proper communication of the individual budgets must be done. Managers responsible for the department’s functioning, must be well aware of the budgeted activities.


· Acceptance and cooperation- A budget must be accepted by all concerned to ensure its proper implementation and success.


· Reasonable flexibility- The budget must have a certain degree of flexibility in order to adapt to varying situations. It must be neither too rigid nor too flexible, as too much flexibility will weaken the cost control and the budget will become inoperative. Similarly too much rigidity in not permitting reasonable deviations will create problems and restrictions in the implementation of the budget.


In order for an organisation to implement a successful budgeting, certain factors need to be instated, by using the above elements I have devised a list of factors stated below of what I feel would help achieve the best results


· Planning


· Determining the factor that restricts performance


· Sales budget research


· Preparation of budgets required for various areas


· Communication & negotiation of budgets with superiors


· Evaluation and co-ordination of budgets


· Acceptance and production of a Master Budget


· Continuous Assessment


Each of the above stages will now be discussed in detail and how its proper implementation will help an organisation achieve a successful budget plan.


Planning


Budgetary planning is the process of preparing detailed, short-term plans for all the functions, departments and activities of the organisation. It is important that the short-term plans and objectives that make up the budget are related to the long-term plans and objectives of the organisation. The budget may be prepared by drawing up an overall budget for the entire organisation, this can then be broken down into more detailed budgets for the different parts of the organisation, this is known as the “top-down-approach”. Alternatively you can go the opposite way and devise budgets for the various parts of the organisation and then bring them together to build up the overall budget, this is known as the “bottom up approach”.


Determining the Factor that Restricts Performance


This is an important stage, which must be taken into account when going through the budgeting process. In fact McLane and Atrill 1 comment “it is the limiting factor which will determine the overall level of activity for the business”. In every organisation there is some factor that restricts performance for a given period. Examples of these factors could be the production capacity, which would restrict performance when sales demand is in excess of available capacity. Another more common example that would restrict the performance of an organisation is sales demand. The reason for the importance in identifying this factor is that ultimately, most, if not all, budgets will be affected by the limiting factor. Therefore, if it can be identified at the outset, all managers can be informed of the restriction. McLane and Atrill 1 state that “it is the limiting factor which will determine the overall level of activity for the business”.


Furthermore, at this stage in the process it would be useful to decide on a fair and efficient allocation of resources. It is imperative that this allocation of resources is considered at an early stage as the sloppy allocation of resources could have a detrimental effect on not only the final, agreed upon budget, but also the organisation as a whole.


Sales budget research


A sales budget identifies expected product sales for a future period of time, to find the sales budget is a difficult process, the amount of sales and the sales mix determine the level of companies operations, when sales demand is the factor that restricts output. This is the most important factor but it is also the most difficult plan to produce due to the fact sales revenue is dependent on the actions of the consumers, sales demand can also be influenced by other factors, e.g. the state of the economy or the actions taken by rival firms.


In discussing sales budget planning it is important to distinguish between extrapolations, forecasts and plans. An extrapolation is the continued projection of an existing trend. A forecast will be based on an extrapolation, but is adjusted to take account of any known factors that will affect the trend. A plan involves some intervention by the organisation in order to modify events in such a way as to make it more likely that the organisation’s objectives will be achieved. The most straightforward method to estimate sales demand is to produce estimates that are based on the opinions of an organisations executives and sales personnel, i.e. a forecast, an extrapolation would be easier but it does not take into account any changes in the market, it simply follows a continuing trend.


If a sales budget is produced using any of the above approaches then the budgeting process carried out will have a higher chance of being successful.


Preparation of the Budgets Required for the Various Areas


With the sales budget already considered due to the importance of the limiting factor it is now best to prepare draft budgets for all the other areas. Ideally, the managers who are responsible for meeting the budgeted performance should prepare the budget for those areas, which they are responsible. Drury 18, recommends that the preparation should be a “bottom-up” process. This process sees the budget originate at the lowest levels of management and feed its way up to higher level; along the way the budget is refined and co-ordinated as it goes up to the higher-level employees.


This “bottom-up” approach allows good involvement among different managers and it is thought that this, in turn, may increase the level of commitment to the targets, which are set. The “bottom-up” approach also allows the business to draw on the local knowledge and expertise of its various managers.


Although the aforementioned approach has significant advantages I feel another approach deserves to be considered. The top-down” approach is where the senior management of each budget area originates the budget targets, perhaps discussing them with lower level management, and as a result, refining them before the final version is produced. This enables senior management to communicate plans to employees, which as a result means employees will be satisfied that plans are being communicated to them.


To ensure the success of the preparation of the budgets, there are several ways in which the appropriate quantity for a particular budget item is determined. Past data may be used as the starting point for producing the budgets. Although this doesn’t mean that what happened in the past will occur again in the future. Changes in future conditions must be taken into account, but past information may be useful guidance for the future. Also, managers may look to the guidelines provided by top management for determining the content of their budgets. As a result if this idea is implemented then the budgeting process should be more successful.


Communication & negotiation of budgets with superiors


It is essential that the plans of each department are related to each other and are integrated together to make a coherent whole e.g. it is no use planning for sales of 170,000 units if productive capacity is restricted to 140,000 units, to help avoid such errors the budgeting process should involve all levels of management. The budget should originate at the lowest managerial level and then these managers should submit their budget to their superior for approval, this superior should then integrate this budget submitted to him with all the other budgets he is responsible for, this then in turn should be put forward to the next superior in the management chain.


The budgetees and their superiors will then negotiate over the budgets and eventually they should come to an agreement, the figures can be regarded as a result of a bargaining process between the two parties. The superior whom is evaluating the budget should not change any details without giving full consideration to the arguments made by his subordinates for including any of the budgeted items. This is a very important aspect of the budgeting process because if a superior totally disregards the input from his subordinate, the subordinate in turn will find it difficult to keep within a budget that heshe did not accept. Sequentially the subordinate will have to ensure real effort has gone into preparing their budget, success levels will be decreased if they set themselves targets that are easily obtained or attempt to underestimate budget targets hoping the final budget will again gives a target that is easily achieved.


Communication and negotiation can be seen therefore as a vital element in the budgeting process as it leads to the budget becoming a very useful management tool rather than just a clerical device.


Evaluation and Co-Ordination of Budgets


This process should be on going as the budgets move up the organisational hierarchy. They must be constantly evaluated in relation to each other. If this evaluation indicates that some budgets are out of balance with other budgets they will need modifying. During the co-ordination process ,a budgeted profit and loss account, a balance sheet and a cash flow statement should be devised to ensure that all the parts combine to produce the acceptable whole. A carefully prepared budget should help to co-ordinate the organisation’s activities and resources.


For example, production must be co-ordinated with sales; purchases of materials and labour with production; and stocks of materials with production requirements, storage facilities and the cash available. However, where there is a lack of co-ordination, steps must be taken to ensure that the budgets mesh. Since this will probably require at least one budget to be revised this activity normally benefits from a diplomatic approach, although where authority is to be asserted it should be done by responsible and well respected managers. The result of successful co-ordination, evaluation and modification of the various accounts will mean that the budgets for the various areas of the business should all work in tandem throughout the organisation and will ensure that all the activity is geared towards achieving the budget objective.


Acceptance of agreed budgets and preparation of Master Budget


When each budget for the different sections within the organisation has been finalized, a master budget can be created


“A master budget is a group of related budgets and forecasts that together summarize all the planned activities of the business. A master budget usually includes a sales forecast, production schedule, manufacturing costs budget, operating expense budget, cash budget, capital expenditures budget, and projected financial statements. The number and type of individual budgets and schedules that make up the master budget depend on the size and nature of the business”. Williams 00


It is the responsibility of management to ensure the content of the master budget appears satisfactory, especially with regard to profitability and the financial stability of the organisation. If the results produced are not acceptable then further examination needs to occur and corrections made until a satisfactory conclusion has been reached. This is an advantage of a well-constructed budgeting system, problems can be identified and proper action can be taken to correct the errors.


Once a final master budget has been agreed on and completed, managers at every level would feel satisfied with their input, they would be motivated much easier to reach their targets and this will encourage a very successful budgeting process in a organisation.


Continuous Assessment


Finally, to achieve the most successful implementation of the budgeting process into an organisation it is an essential factor to be continually assessing and reviewing the budgets prior to and after implementation. The budget is vital in comparing actual performance to planned performance and enabling corrective action to be taken when deviations occur. This means that the budget process should not stop when the budgets have been agreed upon. The actual results should be compared with the budgeted results at regular intervals. This will allow management to identify the items which are not proceeding according to plan and to investigate the reasons for the differences. If it is possible to rectify these differences action will be taken to avoid similar inefficiencies occurring again. Nevertheless, it may be the case that the budget was unrealistic to begin with, or the actual conditions during the budget year were different than those anticipated. In this case, if budgets are to be a useful basis for exercising control in the future, it may be necessary to revise the budgets for future periods to bring targets into the realms of achievability.


This continuous assessment and monitoring of the budgets is alternatively known as the “control” of the budgets. The process, which would be used to modify any mistakes, is commonly known as “feedback control”.


Feedback control’s main feature is that steps are taken to get the budgets back into control as a result of a signal that they have gone out of control. This is illustrated well in the following diagram, which I have drew from information gathered in Edwards, Mellett 15.


A revised budget represents a revised statement of formal operating plans for the remaining portion of the budget period. Thus it is important to realise that the budgetary process does not end for the current year once the budget period has begun; budgeting should be seen as a continuous and dynamic process. Consequently this is an essential factor to consider in the successful implementation of budgeting to an organisation.


Furthermore, this continuous assessment can be most successful by the constant monitoring of actual performance against the budget, and the determination of variance from budget. The results of these comparisons are reported to the executives responsible for each area of the budget. This is known as responsibility reporting. All significant variances, whether they are favourable or adverse, need to be investigated. A significant favourable variance indicates a departure from the original plan. What is significant is a matter of subjective judgement, but will probably take into account such factors as


i. The absolute size of the variance - is it large enough to worry about? There is little point in spending valuable time investigating a small variance.


ii. The proportionate size of the variance - a variance, which shows e.g. a 0% under/overspending, may require further inquiries.


iii. It is part of a trend over time that shows a continuing deterioration?


The use of variances enables a manager to adopt the technique of management by exception, concentrating his efforts on the parts of the plan that are going wrong and thus using valuable time efficiently.


Benefits to be gained from Successful Implementation


I am hopeful that if these stages are followed closely and implemented correctly there should be every chance that the budget will be a success and if not, I have given a brief insight into how the organisation should go about revising the budget. There are several benefits that can accrue from careful detailed planning.








i. The environment in which the organisation operates is monitored, and plans prepared accordingly.


ii. Long-term objectives are kept firmly in view, and steps taken to ensure that the present budget [as far as possible] is kept in line with them.


iii. Under the heavy pressure of day-to-day operations, management doesn’t lose sight of future requirements.


iv. Management makes a conscious effort to look for, and/or to create new opportunities, and to exploit them.


v. A wealth of information is made available to management, on which financial decisions can be made, and the effects of alternative courses of action can be addressed.


vi. A short-term profit plan is prepared in detail, which is acceptable to management.


vii. Management can ascertain that adequate resources are available to carry out the plan, and that as far as possible optimum use is made of them.


Conclusion


Therefore to conclude my explanation of what I see as being the essential factors to the successful implementation of budgeting in an organisation. I believe that if the above eight stages are carried out, then the best results for budgeting will be achieved by the organisation. If this is the case then the main reason for producing budgets in the first place should also be achieved. These being-


· To aid the planning of annual operations.


· To coordinate the activities of the various parts of the organisation and to ensure that the parts are in harmony with each other.


· To communicate plans to the various responsibility centre managers.


· To motivate managers to strive to achieve the organisational goals.


· To control activities.


· To evaluate the performance of managers.


In addition to this, the organisation should also be in a better position to be successful, have a workforce enjoying good morale because they know the business has planned for the future and the organisation will have a plan to work towards achieving.





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Transformational leadership

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Leadership Skills


Managing in todays dynamic, diverse workplace requires great leaders who must be visionaries, “change agents” and coaches. Leadership is the ability to make sound and timely decisions that reflect the mission and the objective of an organization. A leader can be either “transformational” or “transactional” according to CLQ and either style is necessary to the success of an organization. On examining my leadership skills, I have concluded that I am a transformational leader. The skills I identify with are courage, authority, decisiveness, dependability, judgment, loyalty, enthusiasm, teamwork, and initiative. In order to be a good leader, one must have the ability to motivate and inspire individuals to perform tasks as identified for job completion.


In my leadership style, my focus is that employees should always seek self-improvement, thus “empowerment” is the main concept used. Employees are diverse and each offers something differently to an organization, and allowing an employee to perform tasks as they see fit can lead to increased self and organizational worth/value. In allowing them to make decisions, it raises their morale and confidence level, thus making them work harder on the particular project, because they do not want to fail. In my current shop, I have five new troops, who have expressed the desire for extra task and the need to prove themselves that they can be independent and hard working individuals. Each troop was assigned to a specific section where they were given the task of preparing a desktop procedure and from these procedures give a class on how the section must function effectively for mission accomplishment. The troops plunged into the task immediately because of their high level of confidence.


“People oriented leadership” can also be seen in my leadership style. Employees or “human capital” are the heart and soul of an organization, and without employees, an organization would not be successful. In the military, its objective is mission accomplishment followed by troop welfare. Although, mission accomplishment is number one, troop welfare is important as well, because the mission cannot be completed without employees. Last month, a troop encountered legal problems and I spent about three days trying to alleviate this problem. The troop was more concern with the impending legal litigation than in working on his assigned project. Another example is birthdays. Each troop’s birthday is celebrated with cake and ice cream. This celebration creates a bond among the troops and let them know that I care about their well-being and that work can be fun.


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In my current organization I, try to foster a working environment where troops understand why they are performing a particular task. I inform the troops that one day, they will be in a leadership role and they must understand the fundamentals of their job and how to relate to each other in a tem environment. I seek change and or improvement of current job process by utilizing the “proactive” approach, because in order for an organization to remain competitive, innovative ideas, and risk taking are paramount. I invoke the “60 degree” feedback process whereby the opinions and perception of others are compared to identify strengths, and pinpoint the areas of job performance that could be improved. The troops were tasked with submitting their opinion of their leaders style anonymously, the results were evaluated, and a conclusion was drawn. Each leader was made aware of their strengths and weakness from the troops view.


Leadership can be seen as the backbone of an organization, and if the leadership style is not accepted by all employees, then the organization will not be able to function effectively in the industry that it competes.





Please note that this sample paper on Transformational leadership is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Transformational leadership, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Transformational leadership will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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Tactical Decision Making Criteria

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1.) The following are the components of the tactical decision making model and how it was used step by step by Golden Care Inc.


a. Recognize and define the problem


In this case, the problem is that Golden Care’s residents are aging and will be looking for more traditional nursing homes in the near future. Lacey, Golden Care’s CEO, wants to do something before it actually happens. She wants to add a nursing home to Golden Care so that it can keep its current residents and enable them to make a smooth transition to a higher form of care.


b. Identify alternatives and eliminate those that are not feasible


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Lacey and her staff brainstormed and came up with 5 ways to potentially solve the


problem at hand. They eliminated building an entirely new facility based on the


grounds that it would be too costly and involve too much risk. They also eliminated


purchasing an existing nursing home because it wouldn’t be designed to fit Golden


Care’s high quality care standards. This left them with the option of building a new


wing to an existing Golden Care facility. One location did have sufficient land


open to do this.


c. Identify predicted costs and benefits with feasible solution


At this point, Golden Care had already restricted its solution to building on. However, there are two types of markets for potential residents. Medicare/Medicaid patients provide a lower reimbursement, whereas private insurance/private-pay patients provide a relatively higher reimbursement. This translates into two different options for care Basic Care and Lifestyle Care. Both alternatives meet the high-quality care standards that Golden Care prides itself in. However, Lifestyle Care offers more luxurious benefits for the residents and consequently would be more expensive to Golden Care and thus to the patients themselves. Basic Care is a better fit for Medicaid patients, whereas Lifestyle Care is more geared towards the private paying patients. Golden Care’s accountant performed cost analyses on both care options. Now Lacey and her staff are going to determine the benefits based on the amount of revenue each type of patient would potentially bring in.


d. Compare relevant costs and benefits for each alternative and relate it to the strategic


goals of the organization


Lacey and her staff are going to compare the costs and benefits of each alternative


by also figuring in what type of patients they will be serving and in what


proportion. Their goal is to find the option that will provide them with the greatest


net benefit/income.


e. Select alternative with greatest benefit that serves the organization’s goals


After coming up with the alternative that monetary provides the greatest benefit/income, Golden Care must also take into account legal and ethical obligations concerning which type of patients it is bringing onboard. Medicaid patients cannot be evicted after they are accepted, regardless of how high costs may go. However, it is legal to refuse Medicaid patients or to force them out before they are on Medicaid. The dilemma that comes into play here is ethics, resulting in outsiders questioning if Golden Care is more concerned with the patients themselves or making money. It must weigh both of these considerations and come up with the best fit for the organization’s strategic goals.





Please note that this sample paper on Tactical Decision Making Criteria is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Tactical Decision Making Criteria, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Tactical Decision Making Criteria will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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stress

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Individual differences preclude effective stress management strategies. Select one coping strategy and indicate its potential shortcomings with reference to contemporary organisational settings.


This essay is a discussion of effective stress management strategies. The author will start by using some definitions of stress, then look at individual differences with people, explaining the different types that there are relating to how differently they deal with stress. Also looking at what actually causes stress. The author will then progress on to defining what a coping strategy and a contemporary example is. It will look at these two strategies in depth, it will compare and contrast coping strategies to see how they are implemented into the workplace today.


Some definitions of stress


.... a complex and dynamic concept. It is a source of tension and frustration, and can arise through a number of interrelated influences on behaviour, including the individual, group, organisational and environmental factors.....


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(Mullins, 167).


the emotional, cognitive, behavioural and physiological reaction to aversive and noxious aspects of work, work environments and work organisations. It is a state characterised by high levels of arousal and distress and often by feelings of not coping.


(European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs).


stress is the reaction people have to excessive pressures or other types of demands placed on them.


(United Kingdom Health and Safety Commission, London, 1).


Some stress is normal it often provides us with motivation to meet our daily challenges both at home and at work. Stress in these situations is the kind that helps you rise to meet your goals such as deadlines. However, too much stress can have an negative impact this is when satisfaction turns into exhaustion and frustration. Challenges at work become too demanding and this is where we begin to feel stressed. Dipboye et al (1417) identifies that there is a weak link between job related stressors and work performance this makes the relationship between stress and performance a very complex issue. They state that the optimum stress levels varies between people and task and therefore it is difficult to specify how stress will affect performance levels. Therefore it is essential that mangers notice negative stress levels before it is detrimental the individual. Although as stated earlier they should be aware that some certain amount of stress can motivate employees.


There are two types of individuals they are known as type A this is a type of individual that is spurred on by achievement and competitiveness, they are often aggressive, impatient and restless. Type A are more likely to suffer from Coronary Heart Disease than Type B. Handy (174) states that Type A people can do enormous hurt to themselves and to others.


Type B individuals are categorised as laid back, calmer and relaxed.


(Friedman and Rosenman, 174)


Stress can be broken down into three parts which are the sytessor i.e. hassle and uplifts, mediators that are the factors that will help determoine our response to the stressor and include the predictability of the stress our perceived control of it i.e. whether or not as individuals we have a centered or imposed locus of control along with our congnitive interpretation of the intensity of the stressor. Finnaly our individual coping skills, social support network i.e. family and friends along with our sex and personality type all help us to determine our stress response. The final process of stress is our reaction to it whether physical, psychological or behaviour. (Gross, Baum et al).


There are a number of factors which cause stress within the workplace peoples workload weather it be overload or underload, the pace and variety of the work and the meaningfulness of work. Some peoples hours may play a main stressor especially if they do shiftwork they may find it hard to get into a routine and then once they have they have to change again.


The environment they work in, if its noisy they may get disturbed and not be able to work to the best of there ability. Some people may be isolated and find that they have no one to talk to this could lead to depression.





The role that you are in the organisation plays a massive part, there may be role conflict this is where the employee has to choose between competing demands or expectation, complying with one aspect of a role may mean compliance with another is difficult. There is also role ambiguity this is where there is lack of clarity about responsibilities they have this can be a stressor with people who like to be in control. If there is no clear picture of the objectives to complete the task then it is difficult to get the job under control. (Maxon, 17)


The level of responsibility for others is often perceived as a heavy burden for managers, although it is often encouraged in organisations as part of career development. For a manager being responsible for other people creates higher levels of stress than positions in which such responsibility is absent. (MacLean, 180) Mangers must deal with people who have anger in situations where they have been sacked or passed over for promotion, as well as being directly or indirectly involved in negative feedback towards a member of staff this then effects the staff as they will become stressed as well as the manager. (Reid, 1).


Peoples job security is a stressor as they may be in fear of being made redundant therefore panic and cannot concentrate on the job they have to do. There may be no job satisfaction, employees may not be getting challenged enough this may lead to them not doing the job to the best of their ability. People have become more worried with his issue in last 0 years.


Relationships within the work place may not be good between managers and supervisors this may cause communication breakdown which may lead to stress because people may not be doing things right because of the lack of information being processed. The structure of the organisation may not be run well causing participation levels to drop. Which will lead to work being of a lower standard, and even loss of business.


Research by the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology has found that the occupation with the highest stress levels is a Miner the second one is a


Police officer. The lowest stressed job is researched to be a Personnel manager. It is also being researched in Sweden that the total workload of women who are employed full-time have higher stress levels than that of a full-time male particularly where they have family responsibilities.


The two physiological responses to stress, are cannons flight or fight syndrome and Selyes General Adaption Syndrome. Cannon, between 1-15 carried out some of the first work into physiological response to stress. (Bishop. Threough his research Cannon developed and proposed his fight or flight stress response. This sequence of event is where the organism prepares to respond and deal with danger or stress by taking approite measures which will enable it ti fight (attack or defend itself) or flight (flee to safety). Responses involve physical changes brought about by the automatic sympathetic nervous system. The response to stimuklation causes a rise in adrenaline and nor adrenline in the blood. Other reponses include a rise in heart rate, blood pressure, boold sugar, respiration and the movement of blood away from the skin towards the muscles. (Bishop, Baum et al).


Another psycholist called Selye futhured this ideaof fight or flight to develop his own theory on stress response. Selyle in 156-176 devloped his general adaptationsyndrome (GAS) this syndrome consisted of three different stages. The fist is the alarm stage which is triggered


Coping strategies where developed for people who are stressed within a business it is a way of identifying the problem. It is obvious that individuals differ substantially and have different level of stress (Type A and Type B). There are three different components of the stress cycle. Interventions can attempt to 1) reduce the number or intensity of stressors experienced by the manger, ) help managers modify their appraisal of stressfulness of the situation, ) help managers in coping more effectively with stressors and their consequences.


If we go back in time to a man called Henry Ford who was called the Speed-up King this was because he ran an assembly line which was extremely fast some of the older workers in the factory could not keep up and they were fired at the time of hiring the sales of black hair dye rocketed.. Ford liked controlled he believed in giving people second chances even if they were convicts. The Ford Sociology Department (FSD) was established in 114. It was headed by a man called Samuel Marquis, he employed 100 investigators. The department met with Fords interest on self-improvement. FDS social workers or investigators visited workers in their homes, with translators to check how they lived. They monitored workers drinking habits, cleanliness, debts and sexual relations. Employees had to produce their bank cheques and marriage licences at the interviews. Where a Ford investigator considered a worker to be living in a dissolute manner, the latter could receive a pay-cut or suspension. The investigators encouraged single men to enrol in evening correspondence courses.


They also left them a leaflet entitled Rules of Living. This encouraged the workers to use lots of soap and water when washing, not to spit on the floor, avoid hire purchase, and go to Ford-operated schools if they needed to speak English. The wives of the workers were encouraged to take on boarders, in case they were tempted to have sexual relations while the husband was at work. Following Marquis departure the FSD was closed in 117.


Although things did not stop here, they got unpleasant. In the 10s the Plant Protection Service Department at Fords became the company secret police force. It was the threat of the United Auto Unions that turned his Rouge plant into an industrial camp. Service department spies planted microphones, followed men into the toilets to be certain they did not discuss union matte, ran 000 informers among the employees, treated a meeting of any two employees as a prima facie evidence of conspiracy, required workers who walked from one place to another to specify where they were going and why, and searched their belongings for union literature while they were on the factory floor. Workers were banned from smoking in the toilet with Sniffers standing by the air gauges to monitor any infringement. While on the job sitting, squatting, singing or whistling were banned while smiling was frowned upon.


Talking on breaks was prohibited.(Buchanan & Huczynski, 11) The workers were under immense stress they did try and fight back, they communicated moving there lips all of this monitoring obviously took its toll on the employees and they developed what was called the Ford stomach a nervous condition based on stress and exhaustion (Sward, 148) Other worker simply collapsed from exhaustion, a condition which Detroit doctors termed Fordits.


The author has investigated a multimillion pound international company called Kraft Foods the author has looked at coping strategies for stress used within this organisation and what and how they implemented it and how they used to perceive stress before they introduced coping strategies


Authors of text books define stress in a number of ways which was looked at the beginning of the essay we know that stress is harmful and that if we remove sources of stress everything will be pleasant and peaceful or alternatively have coping strategies that are a sub set of stress management strategies.


There are a number of coping strategies for stress the strategies help the individual to deal with the immediate condition or symptoms without making them confront future stressful situations. There are many techniques to help individual bring stress under control changing your viewpoint, putting you problems into perspective, learning to laugh at life, not worrying and working o stress reduction, not talking yourself down and attempting to slow your life down. (Mullins, 1)


Looking at it in more depth a coping strategy called Cognitive Behavioural Therapy is where a manger can feel free and confident to say that they cannot cope where can air their basic fears and invite help if necessary. However this would involve an change of far too many attitudes which people are not prepared to do alternatively they prefer to brush it under the carpet and remain secretive about it. However CBT may be useful in putting an emphasis on rebuilding peoples thoughts on particular issues and help people who over react to stressful situations.


In addition to this regularity is a coping method it simply what says have a regular meal keeping fit , adequate sleep and moderating the consumption of food, drink and drugs these are vital in reducing stress. A healthy life style can improve quality of work, as the manger will reduce theses factors in stress therefore can maintain a higher standard of work for the organisation. (Woodrow, 1). Although the manager will have to maintain a certain amount of commitment which can sometimes be hard.


There also is social support at work which is where Cassell, (174) said an effective way to improve the health of humans is to improve and strengthen social supports. It has been defined as sources provided by people or colleagues at work. there is a lot of evidence that suggests social support is positively related to good health, also social support cushions the negative effect of stress and health problems. It has also been


proven that it increases moral, has better health out comes and more success in coping with the demands of stress in the work place.


The one that the author has spent some time on is stress counselling while investigating Kraft Foods the author found that this is the coping method they use with their employees they find it very successful. Before this was introduced the contemporary business approach was non existent they thought that if an employee was acting out of character they put it down to being a trouble maker and not interested in the job they that the employee had no focus on what they were doing this would lead to disciplinary action which is highly unfair. This is caused by over


looking the main factor that the employee was stressed which is what they have now come to realise with research. . The way they find out if their employees are stressed in they detect a behavioural change in their attitude to work. Once this is detected a manger will go and a quite chat with the worker being careful to draw any attention to the matter with other employees. Once it is certain that the employee is stressed they will be offered counselling on a one to one bases where they feel comfortable in talking to someone. The company does their up most in valuing their employees making sure that they are fine. They also have counselling if an employee is being bullied which can lead to being stressed. The management regularly talk to their workers to make sure they are happy and content with their jobs.


In conclusion work related stress is pervasive and can be costly considering the amount of money companies spend on coping methods along with possible environmental changes which might remove or at least reduce the impact of stressors. In this essay the author has tried to demonstrate what stress is the causes of it and the impact it has not just on the employer but management. Also the coping strategies used. Many studies have been conducted on the management of excessive levels of stress. By and large these have concentrated on individual coping strategies. There is some increasing recognition, however the same environmental factors cannot be influenced by individuals acting alone. Coping strategies do work as long as the person doing them has being trained well and knows how to help the individual. The key to good management is to understand people and the problems they have and to recognise that people are individual and one problem to a person may be a different one to someone else everyone has different stress levels the key is to know what they are and how to act before they get too high.


Bibliography


Buchanan, D. and Huczyuski, A. 17. Organizational behaviour - an introductory text. rd Edition, Prentice Hall, Hertfordshire.


Mullins, L.J. 1, Management and Organisational Behaviour. 5th Edition, Prentice Hall, Harlow Essex.


Mullins, L.J. 00, Management and Organisational Behaviour. 6th Edition, Prentice Hall, Harlow Essex.


Staw, B.M. 15. Psychological Dimensions of Organizational Behaviour nd Edition, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.


Warr, P.16. Psychology at Work 4th Edition. Penguin Books, London.


Journals


Overell, S. 00. Stresstruth will out. Personnel Today.


Wigham, R. 00, Will new stress guidance help ease the burden on employees?. Personnel Today


Websites


www.cohs.psychosocial/stress.com


www.stressnw/proactive.com








Please note that this sample paper on stress is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on stress, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on stress will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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